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Full text of "Essay on fingering the violoncello : and on the conduct of the bow ; dedicated to professors of the instrument"

Cbe Hibcarp 

of tt)e 

Onftiersitg of J13ortf) Carolina 




CEnDotoeti bp %it SDfalecttc 

ant 

pgilantbtopic ^ocietieif 



MUSIC LIBRARY 



THE LIBRARY OF THE 

UNIVERSITY OF 

NORTH CAROLINA 

AT CHAPEL HILL 




Music 
Vault 
Folio 
MT302 



ENDOWED BY THE 

DIALECTIC AND PHILANTHROPIC 

SOCIETIES 



E73 
1852 





This BOOK may be kept out TWO WEEKS 
ONLY, and is subject to a fine of FIVE 

CENTS a day thereafter. Tf .w^taj^^,. p|,f^ gp ^^ 

the day icdicatecU hgl ow: f^ ATP PM iC 






Digitized by the Internet Archive 

in 2012 with funding from 

University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill 



http://archive.org/details/essayonfingeringOOdupo 



^Translated from t7ie Ojiginal tfs' 

JOHN BISHOP, 

fof Cheltenham .J 



fsdAB 




hji I . Sta .TFaU . 



Frue 30/ 



MESSRS ROBERT COCKS A C° NEW BURLINGTON STREET, 

HanoForte Mannfactarens . andlhisicrablishersj'hv-^pn'ial war/'cin// 

TO HER MOST EXCELLENT MAJESTYTHEpUEEN . 

Wie?r may he had far the VIOLONCELLO. 

BAILLOT, LEVASSEUR.<S CATELS M ETHO D , TRA NS LATED BY A . M E RRI CK ESQ 12J - SU PPLEM ENT TO D ? 61" 
GUNNS ESSAY lOG. HA M I LTONS CATF:^ HISM I- D° INSTRUCTION BOOK 3- 




I 



l\ 



CONTENTS 



Anther's Preface ^-^-,- -. ,- 2 

Explanation respecting' the clefs used in this work ,. 4' 

Kxplanation of thte signs ased for the fing'ering' , 4 

PART I. 



\ . 20 



\ , ..... 35 



CHAPTER I. The tuning of the Violoncello ■... —-■,-_^-: ' 5 

. JT. Manner of holding' the Violoncellb . v- 5 

— _ — — ^ III. Of the position of the hand 1 - S 

rr. Of the Scales on the Neck _., ---, ■-- 11 

^ . — T^. Of the Scales played on one String, followed by 

a Supplement to the same scales' 

P^I. Of the four Positions on the Neck ^^ -- - SI 

T'll. Of Scales played by successions of three fing^ers, 

without tlie use 'of the open strings 

^ F"!!!. Of the Chromatic Scale, which is suitable to all key^ 40 

IJT. Of Harmonics ^_. - 44 

JC. Of Double Stops; namely — 

ARTICLE I. Of Thirds and succession of Thirds 55 

II. Thirds and Seconds 58 

III. Succession of Thirds, Seconds and Sixths 59 

I'F'. Succession of Thirds and Sixths a 60 

r. Of the Fourth ..... — . . 61 

ri. Of the Fifth . 62 

ril. Of the False Fifth . . ,. 62 

nil. Of the Sitperfluous Fourth . -- 64 

IX. Of the difference in the manner of fingering the 

Siipei-fluous Fourth and the False Fifth 

X. Of the Sixth, and successions of Sixths - — 70 

XI. Succession of Sixths and Fifths 76 

. : XII, Succession of Sixths and Sevenths -- — 77 



\ 6« 



Ill 

ARTICLE Xlll. Of til.' Diniiiiishtd Sev.iilli 77 

XIT'. He<M|iitiilatioii of the difft-rent successions 

of Chords already ^iveii 
CHAPTER XT Of the fing-eriiijc of Arpet;Ki"s, ami of the extensions 

, ■ , „, r so 

which occur ui them ' 



} ,_.,. .:.. 78 



} 88 



j- . .... ISO 



XII- -^ Passages suitable for developing- .lud putting' in practice 

all the principles of fing-ering- 

_ jr///.-Of the Shake .. 1V»« 

._ XII'. Of the necessity of proving' the unisons and 

octaves by the open strings 

Xf. Observations on the manner of tuning the instrnment 132 

XVI. Of vibrations and their coalition : tS* 

XVII. Kxplanation of the distance at which the fingers 

should be placed from each •other, in the first 

four positions; and the proof of the unity of V 14t4i 

these positions, by comparing the second, third, 

and fourth, with the first, in all its relations 
__ XVIII. Of the Bow; namelv — 



ARTICLE I. Of the manner of holding- the Bow -. 156 

//. Of the position of the Bow on *''e string 157 

III. Of the place of the Bow on the string - 157 

IV. Of the conduct of the Bnw onr-.the string 159 

V. Of the attack of the string by the Bow - 160 

VI. Of equality and shades or gradations of sound, and of Kxpression 162 

VII. Considerations relati^e to equality of \ 

sound, and to the quality or distinc- I 

tive character of the tone produced 



) 



from the instrument 

VIII. Of the diffi'i-i lit methods of bowing 166 

IX. Of the bowing of those passages 

called, in French, "jj«tt»;n'«.s'" > 

_^ X. Of the form and length of the Bi'v-yr 174 

PART II. 

Consisting of 21 Exercises in different keys.. 176 



Aiuv^^a'^ s>ae?A(S2» 



= + >?•+<: 



U|)\*i<r(ls of" twenty years have elapsed since I was first sdlicited by friends, 
prottsHors, Kiid amatenrs, to write on the fing;erin^; of the Violoncello. It was not 
then possible for me to undertake such a task, although so perfectly in accord- 
ance with my own feelings. I was too much occupied and, it may be, too much 
given to pleasure, while I resided in Paris, to expect to finish a work which would 
require so much time and research:bnt as I never lost sight of it, 1 prepared mate- 
rials hy occasionally making notes of what I might have to say , in case I should 
ever set about it . At length I have found leisure to devote myself entirely to the 
work, and this I have done with pleasure, having been always passionately, fond 
of studying the Violoncello. I shall be ha])])y if my work should meet the ap- 
probation of the public and the masters of the art, M'hose suffrage v\ill. be al- 
v^'ays flMltti^ing to me; and particularly if it should help to abridge the immense 
labour of those who are engaged in 'the study of the instrument. 

I have cdufined myself to treat on fingering, because that branch is the least 
known aiid yet the most useful; and although I am aware there are professors 
who finger extremely well, it is nevertheless true that the rtiles for fingering 
tlir \io|iin< ( lln are still so slightly t established , that the most skilful justly com- 
))hiiii there exists not a method siif (iiitiitly developed and comj)lete, but every 
pidti'Hsor o< the instrument fingers in a manner peculiar to himself. If it be said 
that fwry ptrlcirmer has also his own mode of expression, I reply it is very na- 
tural this should be so; l)ut as fingering is purely a mechanical operation it ap- 
l)iars to me it should be the sami with every individual. 

It is certain that hitherto nothing satisfactory has been written on fingering 
til \ iol iictdli, . Then- are even some professors who still affirm there exist; un- 
a\oi iabk ((iiitr.utictions in fingering which it would be futile to endeavour to cor- 
rect, and that it would he almost impossible to answer satisfactorily all questions 
"M this s\il)j((.t v\ithoiil ajjparent contradiction arising &c; but let me assure tht .n 
that, it tin VioidiK-ello is not snsceptil)lc of a regular method of fingering, it must 

()ii|)i>rl's Ks^ay <.ii the Violoncello hv John Bir-h.n. . 9T4B 



.? 



be an iiifVrior instrnment , and this is not the rank which it holcis among those 
at present in use 

My desijrn in writinji; this treatise is not to produce one of those books rail- 
ed a Mkthod books in which the principles are lijtfhtly touched on.and in which 

are jrjven an immense number of progressive airs in every key, that become old 
almost as soon as Vritten . Every*, master can find such things ready to his hand, 
or can compose them for his pupils if necessary. 

I purpose to treat the subject of fingering in its full extent, and in so convincing 
a manner, as to reconcile even professors who may differ in opinion on certain points, 
and endeavonr through the force of reason to lead them to unity of principles . 
Perhaps this may be a lofty pretension; but I shall not think I have prodac«d a pafl- ' 
sable work, and one which is in the smelliest degree useful, unless I attain that end. 

I have gone considerably into detail in the article on double stopping, for t^*© 
reasons: yVrst, because it has not hitherto been treated on, although I consider it 
very useful to a great player; and stco7jdiy, because it has often served as a proof 
of the correctness of my views, for double stops become impracticable when not 
fingered with great regularity . 

Some things will be met with in the coarse of this work which will appear 

difficult, but I have taken care to avoid such as are impracticable. This is not 

a vail) theory . Not a scale, a passage, or piece has been inserted, until I have fre- 
quently tried it myself, and until it has been also tried by my brother, (who was , 
is, and always will be my master,) and even by some talented pupils of mine at 
??erliii and Pcitzdam. This has fully convinced me that nothing will bt- found here- 
in which cannot be easily, neatly and accurately executed; for what at first sight may 
apl'ear impracticable, will become perfectly easy, if the learner have patience to prac- 
fi-e it, and also to finger it regularly, as it is marked . 



9748 



EXPLA NATION 

RESPECTING THE CLEFS USED IN THIS WORK. 

For tho sake of the greatest facility, as well as to comply with the Usagje 
now established, I haTe employed only two clefs; that of F, or the Bass clef, 
and that G, or the Violin clef. 

I do not use the Gr clef as it employed in the general system of clefs, but 

according- to the method adopted during the last thirty years for the Violoncello; 
so that the G here given in the F clef @ '^ ~~~ and that which follows in 



the G clef ^ 



are the same, or in other words, a nnisun. 



EXPLANATION 

OF THE SIGNS USED FOR THE FINGERING. 

0, Signifies the open string. 

9 , Signifies the thumb,* and the figures 1,2,3,4), the four fingers. 

When a line is drawn after 2V? string, it implies that the playing is to b« 
continiied ()n that string, as far as the line extends; and so as regards the o- 
thcr strings . 

When a line is drawn after same yosition, it implies that all the notes with- 
in the range of the line must be played in the same position . 

When the words same position occur after (f , which indicates the thumb, they 
signify that the thumb is to remain in the same place. 

If I should require to use other signs, 1 will explain them when the occasion 
presents itself for their employment . 



III (he iiritriiwl Fremb tHlilinii iif this wnrk a us (immI to inJiiHlv (h.- opi-n htriiiir, ^inl ««i indicjli- »h.' Ihiiiiili 
Th.- .ili..M> I hrtiiifi's have hii'ii w.tilt< in »wiiftli<inc with g-cneif-al [iraiticf. ^p^ 974.6 



PART I 



CHAPTER r 



THE TUNING OF THE VIOLONCELLO. 



i^* string; 



81<* String^.- 



'Sr"! String-: 



■ 4V'' String-' 



m 



i 



c- 



I shall offer some remarks on the manner of tuning, after having spoken 
of the revision of anisons aqd octaves by the open strings. 

CHAPTER II . 

MANNER OF HOLDING THE VIOLONCELLO. 



The manner of holding thft Violoncelld between the legs varies greatly ac- 

I. 

cording to the habits and different statnre of persons . A man may play very 
welli althongh holding his instrument somewhat higher or lower than ordinary. 
The following method is the most nsnal, and is perhaps the best. 

The player most first seat himself on the fore part of the chair, extend 
his left foot forward, aiul draw in his right; then place the instrnment between 
his legs, so that the lower left hand corner of the back may fall into the hollow 
of the left knee, and the weight of the instrument be borne od the calf of the 
left leg, the fiK* being turned outwards. If , on the contrary, the left knee were 
placed in the concave part of the sides , it would impede the free passage of the 
bow when playing on the first string . The right leg must be placed against the 
lower side of the instrument to keep it steady. 



974.*? 



CHAPTER III . 

OF THE POSITION OF THE HAND. 

The position of the hand beinjr one of the most essential thin|;s in play- 
ing well on the Violoncello, I think it my duty to enlarge a little on this subject. 

First, the thumb must be placed in a natural manner quite at the back of 
the neck, parallel to,: aUjd' between, the first and second fingers, when these are pla- 
ced on the finger-board. For instance, in the first position, when the first, finger 
is put on the note E of the second string, and the second finger. on; the note K i iDf 
the same' strihg, theilhumb at <the back of theoeck should' come exactly betweenci. 
these two fingers ; and in all four positions of the hand on the neck, the 
thumb should be always opposite the interval formed by these two fingers, in 
order that the hand may constantly preserve the same appearance. 

Secondly, the fingers most be well rounded on the string, so that thjsy may 
fall down upon it like little hammers . 

In order to see the form which the hand should assume on the neck, we have 
only to take the following chord, and it will then be properly placed. 



First Piisitimi, ^■-' 4. ^!^ S' ' « ' R«rin^ 



"5 -©.4.'t'strrss^ 

By moving the hand a semitone lower, the following chord maybe taken., and 

yet the hand will retain its proper form; and ntitwithstanding this descent of a se- 
mitone we shall still be in the first position. This will be explained hereafter. 



Fir»t Pcisititi 






( ^ * l^'i"nT r^, ~ 



5 



y PO 9r < i 'sm 



W- 



I hase given the preference to these two chords, although they are not in the 
scale of C, which is the first, because I wished at once to have the distance of 
two tones between the first and fourth fingers. It will be seen hereafter, that 
there is ahernately the distance of a tone and a half, and of two tones, between 
the first and fourth fingers; but it is requisite that the hand be so placed, that 
the stret'H of two tones between these fingers can be easily made. 

The.e are many persons "who, in playing the following passage, always jerk 
the hand in taking the E flat. 

9746 



First Position. 



^e 



P 



SS 



4 



b > * , *" ^ 



+ 



HMZ 



^ 



But only the first finger should advance and recede; that is, advance 
in order to take the E natnral, and recede to take the t flat; the whole 
hand hov^ever must always preserve the same form. The second, third, and 
fourth fingers, must not suffer the least alteration nor experience the least 
movement from the change of place of the first finger; and the thunih also 
must remain quite immoveable during this exercise. Here followR aimther 
example of this movement of the first finger, without deranging the position 
of the hand. It v^ill be the more striking, because the second and fourth 
fingers remain stationary, and only the first finger moves. 



First Pcisitiiin. 



1, ^ 1| -J- \, -J- \^ 'I "*^ 

4I 1' ' u I u 'i ' I 4 I 14 V 



The fourth finger which takes the C on the third string, and the second 
finger which takes-^ the other C on the first, must remain stationary through, 
out; it is only the first finger which moves from E flat to E natural, and 
vice versa. The other fingers remain steady in their places. 

In the next example, the second finger takes the place of the third;M'hile 
the first finger remains immoveable. 



First Position. 



^ 



8 4 

If 



r r T r r r r r 



4 



If the thumb be placed at the back of the neck, exactly opposite the interval 
between the first and second fingers, every facility will be afforded of moving 
the second fiuger into the place of the third, and consequently the third and fourth 

will have advanced a semitone; and the extension between the first and fourth,'which 
was onl\ A tone and a half, will now be that of two tniies. 

Here follows another example of the same movement, but with douljie stops. 



t'irbt Position. 



w 



1 



\ 



1 





In this instance, the first finger remains firm in its place; tfu- third, which 
t ikes the B on the third string, jfi^t-s place to the second fiiijier, and, by this 
)irocedure, enables the fourth, which took G natural on the second string, to 
a-cend to G sharp on the same string. 



9746 



Tilt* above rhdrds are rertainly not rich in harmony, but they have been 
choKcii in (jrcfcrence to others, as beinjr the best adapted to elucidate (he 
jiosil ion of fht hand . 

Double stops have been used, bee ause they obli^fe the hand to take its' 
proper position, for, those who hold their hand badly when playing Binjfle 
notes, always hold it well when they play in double stops; so that it may 
be said oi" them, they have two positions of the band. 

W hat we call a bad position of the hand, is, grasping the neck as in 
])laying on the Violin, which contracts the fingers, and renders the exten-r 
sion of two wh(de tones by the first and fourth fingers almost impracti- 
cable, r.nless the hand be very large: so that those who adopt this position are 
obliged to jerk the hand every moment, even in playing snch a passage as the 
following, in E flat. 



18*8 I 2 * 8 



First Position. 




If those who grasp the neck are o|)en to conviction, they must admit 
th^it they cannot play this example without jerking the hand. 

Ill passing from the first position to the second, from the second to 
the )hn'! H;id then to tlu- fourth, »he hand should always preserve the sanu- 
forni; aiitl ihe ihumb, which should be held lightly at the back of the neck, 
should I illos* the hand, and hr ahvass ])laced in a parallel direction betvMt-n 
(he iriieinl (ormed by the first and second fingers, as already remarked. 

riu r. tr* some who begin by mo\irig (he lingers from one position *o 
another, and ih»n niikiiig the thumb follov . This method subverts the per- 
pendicular pressure o( the fingers, and even alters their respective distance, 
which i^ives rise to false ttil'inat ion . In each position, the hand must pre- 
ser\e the sam>- ( rut i ; it took in the first; and the fingers must likewise 
maintain their sail i- '^.spet tive distance, except their insensible and necessary 
a]i|iroachment (o lkIi ither, in moving towards the bridge, owing to the stops 
befouling gradually closer. These approachments of the fingers can only be de- 
termined by fhi' ear a well practised performer makes them, as it were, mechanically. 

9748 



I have nlready remarked that the fiiigt-rs should be rouuded on the string; 
and in order to effect this, they must be made to press upon it with their tips, 
^B near the nail as possible. Many persons 'who have not been able to acquire 
this ronnding of the fingers, have imagined that it arose from want of strength 
and nerve; bnt they are mistaken.lt arises from their not employing the tips of 
their fingers . The third and fourth fingers are chiefly subject to this fault. Ad- 
vance the finger a little and press it firmly on the string, and the first joint 
will be observed to sink in; but place it as near the nail as possible, and then 
press it down, and it will remain rounded. H|pnce,it is not the want of strength, 
but the bad method of placing the finger on the string which is the cause of this 
inconvenience; a fact, indeed, which will be obvious to every unprejudiced person, and 
which must the less be disregarded, since the acqnirment of a good touch will be 
impracticable, if the fingers be not placed on the string in this manner. 

Care must be taken not to hold the fingers high above the strings, bat to keep 
them pressed upon them as much as possible; for instance, if D had to be takeq on 
the first string by the fourth finger, the other fingers should be also on the string 
which will impart much strength and firmness to the fourth, as this alone would be 
very feeble . Take, for example, the following- notes : — 



First Position 



^ 



^ ^ ^ ^ 



The first finger is placed on B, then follows the second on C (the first still 
remaining down), and the fourth takes D, the third being pressed down at the same 
time with it. The D is then sounded again, while all the fingers remain down; 
afterwards, the fourth and third are raised together, and C is left under the pres- 
sure of the second and first fingers; then the second is raised,and the first is fonnd 
in its place for B. This method is the more deserving of notice, as by it the fingers are 
reciprocally strengthened, and when once correctly pressed down, are found again 
in the same place . 

If the following passage be played in quick time, the fingers should act in the 
manner described above, and the first finger always be kept firmly down. 



First Pnsition 



r rf T i c 



2 t 2 



f-rf-^ *^fr, 



9746 



10 



III the followiiij^ example, the strond and third fingers should fall and rise 
to)j;ether, as if they were one. 



Fir^l PoKifiim. 



^ 



1 

_0- 



. J. 1 « 



f f l ^f f I" f ^^ 



To perform this, place the first finger firmly on the string, and the second 
and third fingers moving together will not only impart strength, but also much 
greater facility, than . if the third finger acted alonti^. 



First Piwition. 



Si 



The shake is made in this way, 

^ e_ 



A 



In the next example, the third and fourth fingers are those which mast 
act together. 



at s t 2 t 2 * 



First P4iBiti(in. 



^ 



^ 



^i i Tfrf 




The shake is made in the same way, and thereby becomes more marked and brilliant. 



First Position. 



M 



^ 



It fi 



1 2 



Here the second finger must be placed Very firmly on the string, and the beat- 
ing niade with the fonrth finger, accompanied in its movements by the third, which 
will ^rreatly improve the shake. Perhaps it will be asked, why should these two fin- 
gers he nsed together in shaking]^ Would it not ensure greater neatness to keep the 
third a little raised, as many persons do.^ because it is possible that both fingers 
may not nio\e well together. To which I reply, it will be very difficult to prevent 
their acting together. Let any one try, even without an instrument, to open and close 
the tittle finger as is done in making a shake, and he will see if the third finger 
does not naturally make the same movememeat; which indeed it will be found very 
difficult to prevent. Hence it follows that, in forcibly impeding the movement of the 
third finger, the fourth is subjected to much restraint; by which also it is deprived 
o( all the strength that the third would impart to it, if both moved together as 
iiitiire indicates. 



9746 



• This chapter ^sill perhaps be tlidugbt rather too lonjr ;uid complex to he placei! 
at the beginning of this -work; Ixit I rmiM not easily have been more concise, as I 
desired to ex})ress mvself in as clear and intelligible a manner as possible: for, 
the acqnirement of a gimd position of the hand pres«Mits the greatest difficulty to 
the pupil, especially if he has previously contracted a had j)i)siti(Hi . Indeed, 1 have 
met with some who have never been able to attain it. As to complexity, I have 
endeavoured to my utmost to avoid it: however, I considered myself not as s])eal-'inii 
to young beginners v^ho are wholly ignorant of music, (for a knowledge of tht) scales 
is necessary for a thorough comprehension of this chapter,! but to amateurs consi- 
derably advanced, and to ])rofessors who can e.xi)lain ni\' meaning to their pupils, 
if they should adopt my method of fingering. Hence, I deemed the beginning 
of the book the most suitable place for what I have here said. 

C H A P T E R I V . 

OF THE SCALES ON THE NECK. 



I shall give these scales in the chromatic order, leaving it to masters to 
present them to their pupils in whatever order they may deem the most suitable. 

A difficalty occurs in regard to the succession of sounds in the minor scales, 
some persons desiring the major sixth in ascending, and others the minor sixth. 
But, as this is a treatise oa fingering, and not on composition, I shall not at- 
tempt to decide the question. Besides, ever since I have played the Violoncel- 
lo and composed musical pieces, I have sought in vain, in the works of the 
best authors, whether it could be determined by the fact of ge4ieral practice; 
and :a!l I could discover was, that, in ascending, the sixth degree is sometimes 
major, and at others minor. Still, however, I have observed that in slow scales 
it is most frequently minor, and in quick scales generally major, in ascending. 
Occasionally also, the seventh degree is major in descending, though it is 
more commonly minor. 

As the player should perform the music as it is written, I shall give the 
minor scales in two ways: first, with the major sixth in ascending, and with 
the minor seventh and minor sixth in descending, as ordinarily used: secondly, ^^ifh 
the minor sixth in ascemting, and the major se\enth in descending, as occasionally em- 
i"-".^t-*l- 9746 



12 



SC^LE OF 
C MAJOR. 



C MINOR. 




4'.''8trinif. 



S'.'^Serinir. 



8".''8triny. 



lYStrinir. , 



•6 * 



a O 



o ° 



1 'i 



2 ".'^string-. 



-n — r 

3'".''strinK-. 



iVflrii.i;. 

-o — *^ 



~a — r 



4''.'' Str 



"2 [ 

4*.*' String. 



" ' . o 



° o 



o o 



4. 2 1 

S^'^Sfriiig^. 



T; 3- 



=2=©= 



4 3 



i 



?■ ^ 
1 



2'^'sfriBg 



^ 



4 







^ 



& 






^ 



o=q 



o ° 



o " 






Sr'^S^riny. 



15 — r 



4*}»Strin(r. 



T 



4t.'iStrinif. 



g O 



C Ml \OR. 

.isipiiJinjf wi(h the Minor 
Sixlh,..nd disc .nding-with 
fhi' Ma^r Sii.nth. 




1 2 I (T 

3*:*^ String. 



a ' o 



JCt 



2 * 



^ 



'■ » ¥ f =■ s 

, I'-.'Striiu 

g"''st""g- ^ o , BO ^ 

^ es O " 



I 



I 



2"A String. 



3401212 12 

3'C'* String. 4'?' String. 



J O 



132: 



2 V 



1 



* 



" o 



' " * TYf 



1 



For the Scale of C# Major, see Chapter VII. p .5S. 



C Jf MINOR. 



^ 



4'.'' String. 



31'* Strinjr. 



2".'*Sfrin>r. 



P 



^ ^ T 

l^' string. 



^^=^ 



^ 



:^sz 



g o 



l^t String. 



g^ 



ring. 



1 2 ^ 

2"'i String. 



1 2 4 

S""."* String. 



1 2 4 

4')^ String. 



1 3 



"s — r 



4*.*' String. 



~g"^ 



1 



" o 



i 



* ' T T Yt 



t S MINOR. 
■iM-.'nrtui^ with thp Mine 
Slxlli,i,ii,l d.scpnilingwifh] 
th.' \| ,j>.r ScM-nlh. 



^ 



3''.'* String. 



a","* String. 



w 



^ 



■ ^ "^ T 

,st' ^ ^ * 

IV string. 



o o " 
134. 



2'!'* String. 



M 



g O 



3a: 



J 2 ?~ 

3"".'' string. 



"2 3^ 



4'.'' string. 



I**.' Siring. 



I 



"Or - 



4 2 



o g 



t^ 



° o o 

* 3 , 



1 



For the Scale of Db Major, see Chapter VII. y.3H. 

9746 



O MAJ O K 




+'."Stn,.t a'':' Strmif. 



a".' SInnif 



I O g i 



o ° 



l^t Str,nt 



^ 4 3 1 



- I o n =^ , 

° o I i 4^ T 

.S'".''striinf 



o - 



/,? 



3 4-01 






4'.''Slriii)i 



D M I N (1 K 




4-*.'' Strinir. 



~n 4 — g~ 



10 4 T T 'ff f ^ ^ 

I 



1 



^ r 



I'^'striinr 



4 



„ 1 2 



O tt ° 



o o 



o; c 



"n o" 3^ ^ 



4 fl i 2 T" i 3 ^ 



-^""O-©- f-^ g';>'strm^. 3"->* String;-. 4thstnnL' 

^ ^ ^— ' ■ ■ " 



^ ° o o 



4 2 10 4 2 10 4 



" O LJ O^^ 

^T 2 1 r ^ 



D MINf)R. 
aPtvndinii- ^ith thi* Minor ■ 
S;x(h,Hnd di'scpudingf wilTi v 
111' Maii.r Spvcnlh- J 7- 

(i 



s 



4'.'' string-. 8'".'' Siring-. 



"■+31 



I 3 



K*Strine 



4 



• O 



=1=1 



-© O- 

n I 2 4 



2"''strinir. 

O L - i ° " -^ 



l^'Mrii.L'- 



^ 



^'Strinp. 



4 3 



2"."^ String. 



" ° Q O 



I 

S''.''strinff 



2 4 



1 



T^ — g- 



1 3 

4'.*' Strinp. 



I 



4'.hstriiiir 3'".'*StriM 



K !> M A J O H 




2'r'stnni; 



I 

1st St..;., 



o g ! 



o g 



o ° 



o o I 



l^•strill. 

-e- ^ 



o '^ ~ — = — ' 

■ 2 •*• 01 



"2 i 5" 



T" 



S".'* string 



° O CT _ 

° g O 



4"' St r; lit;. 



4 3 



" O g O I - 

* 2 1 ? -f 



i 



Kb MINOR 




Eb M I NO R_ 

■ ■-i •■mliiiif ttiih thr Minor 
~livlh,ariil d.^sicnjiiufwit'- 
;i. M ,|.,r Sc\. nth. 



^.^ .-» . sfrniif. 4''."SIriiiK. 

"'^ 2 \ 3 '1 ,, 4 ;i ~-^ ® 0~«- 

9746 -^ 



u 



K MAJOR. 




E MINOR. 



2".''strinir. 



l^* string- 







1 



z $a tf<g 



l^.'striiiif, 1,^ 



^ ^ '^ o ^ 



3 , I 

2";'s(rine. 



1 



" ^y"' o - 



S'l'^Strinir. 



^•.''Sfriiiir. 



■ CT O 



F. MINOR. 

aKcen<f itit^- with the Minor 
Sixlli, ■ii.l ■li-.i'enUing'wilh 
(hi- Mj|cii Si'M'iith 




2 4 

4*''Strinir. 



2 I 

3''.'*Strin(r. 



I 



r ? ' ■ o 



1 



1 



4 



, o ff g * 



33: 







l^' Strinir. 

:g: tt^ .e- o _ g^i^'strin^. 
^ ° I o o 



3 4 

7- 



2™Stniiir. O -©■ fl^ 



o g 



1 



3»:>lstrin)f. 



4'^St^iniBr. 



F MAJOR. 




■"1^ I 2 i (T 
4'}'Stritnr. 3'';'strin)r. 



- " go .rt 



^ 



4 3 



2".''stniiii-. 



g» a q : 



1 



l*-/ string. 



I 



e» ® 



133: 



o ° - 



ICX 



o g^ g 



4 1 2 4 



1^' stciiiir. 

£ ^ ia. 



-^=-^^ 



2".''strinp. 



F MINOR. 




"^ 3 i 2 1 

4'.''Slrinir. S'.** Strinjr. 



" o n o 



3''.''strinii. 



"T 3 ?r 



4*hstriin;-. 



2 1 

2".^' St ring-. 



" ? o o 



I () 



1 



-o- 





zsr. 



^ 



I P <=> 



:jsz 



r.'sirine-. 



1 



— a— 

4 
r.' String. 

— — ^-=^ - O- o —, 

° q> J o 



1 2 4 12 4 



I 3 ¥" 



3''.''striiig. 4*^St^ing 



F MIN0R. 

t'-een,lin^ with the Minur 
Sixth, a,rid descending -with 
the M .j„r Seventh, 




'—i — w- 

3''.'lstring. 



~i I r 

2".'* String. 



° ^ o 



4 



-»- 



O g 



^ 



^ ;T i O 



1 



1 2 



1 2 F 



4 It o 
■^ 1 

1^' StrJMK. ^ 



1 



g ^^ ^ rr"'_ ^, 



S"".'* string'. 4*.'' String. 



P '^ P o 



4 2 J 
S746 



4 2 I 



3 1 



^ O 



1 



IS 



For thf scale of F J .Major, see Chapter VII. p." 58 . 



Fff MINOR. 



4*.^ Strinir. 



ar^'struu-. 



2"/' String-. 



^ 



O " 



l^' Strink . 



o tfo I ^ * ° 



o O I 



r.' siring-. 

o g • 



so. 30; ^ 



1 2 4 1 8 4 i 2 i 3 4 



^ 



a^.^. 



^ -e- 



2".'^ string-. 



3''i' String-. 4*.*' St rime- 



" O 



g) o 



P o 



42 I 21 1) 42 I II 42 l 

4t'^StrinBr. S^".'' String-. 2".'*Strin«-. 



" ■ o 



i 



F ; MINOR. 

(V., . luliii^f wiih the Minnr 
Sivih,and dt'scvnilin^wifh 
rh*' Major Seventh. 




o <=> 



=ft==: 






2 4 i 5 5^ i 5 ? i 5" 



2".'' string-. 



Sl^'strintr. 4*.*" St ring-. 



^^ ° t |o 



J o 



ics: 



21 43 10 ♦210421 



1 



For the scale of G P Major, see Chapter Y II. p . 59. 



G MAJOR. 



(. MINOR. 



3^String. 



^ 



O CT 



O g 



(1 T 3 5" 



Kt string. _, ,©. 52. 

O g -^ ^ — — 



^ 



T 3 4 i 2 5^ I 3 ?~ 

..^ 2".^Strint. S":** String. 

-^ ©- 



ZSl 



° o 



g o 



4 S I 4 2 i 4 3 I 4 ^ 1 



. ■o o 



o 



Sn"* string. 



2'y' Siring. 



l".' String. 



^ 



g o ff g 



« I o 



tt^ »^ = 



o 



1 2 4" 1 3 4 i 2 5~ 



r.' String. 



^ 



qSL bl©. ^ 2'nl string. 

^ I ^ - ^ o ^^ 



3'-.'' string. 



g o 



4 2 14 2 1 

3'".'^' string. S'T^^tr 



4 i 



^^ ©- 



i 



G MINOR. 

v^ft'ii.Httii wiih thi- Minnf 
Sin ( lT,firi'< lU'-ri-nding" with') 
Ih.- M.iiorSt'v.nth. 



^^ 



^ o " = 



o g 



^ 



IV String. 

O Q ^ ^ 



?i2 :^ 



I 2 + 1 

l^' string-. 



»^ ?o- 



"3 ~~^ Ti j ?~ 
2".^' String. 



S'', ' String 



S 



ffo o 



O CT 



4314210 +3 I II 42 I 

9746 



/6- 



For the sfales of G jJ Major and Minor, and Ap Major 
and Minor, see Chapter VII. p. 59. 



A MAJOR. 




SV'Strinir. 2";' Siring. 



I^ 



c> o 



zaz 



4 i 2 3~ 



P 



-&- 



in: 



o g 



13 1 2 I ? 3 



2')"Stririi; 



Sr'Slri.., 



CT CJI 



H 



5s: 



o g 



g o 



^ 



2 1 4 3 10 



4 2 10 4 2 1 



A MINOR. 



S'l'^Strinir. 



m 



o o 



jHI 



2".'siriiii!:. 



I^'Strln^c. 



i 



1 3 4- 12 4 

1^* Strinit. 



iiT o 1 



tfo ^° 



2 1 2 1 2 S 

2".'*Striinf. S^-'siriiiif. 



ics: 



o o 



P 



° o 



\J 3 4 2 i 4 2 i o" 

3''.''siriinr. 2".'lstriinr. 



o o : 



32: 



i 



4 2 I 4 3 I 

I^' Sii-imr. 



A MINOR. 

HsceridiMii' with (ht 
Mni.r Si\fh,.iiii| J. -' 
■-'•en.i iti.i w i1 h t ho 



w 



{J o - 



:t^ 



1 ■^ 4 1 

r.* St rill?. 

'^tg o „ . 



^ 



4o. 



12 1 3 4 2 3 

2'!''sirintr. 3':''Slrii.i;. 



ZS3Z 



g o 



i^ 



3 2 4 3 12 10 



4 2 10 4 3 1 



eb MAJOR. 



;'. fetriiia:. 



1^'striiia:. 




i 



23= 



a g 



2 4 I 2 4 tJ i ~2 4" 

I':* Striiiif ■ 
O |-> ,_ 2".'' string. 



2 12 3 
3''^Str,n.i 



g O 



ISI 



lOI 



4 2 1 4 2 i 4 2 1 (' 



Ht> MINOR. 




S'l^'strinir. 



2';"StrinL' 



^ 



n: 



1 



J^ffi, ^ 



TO3=: 



13 4 1 2 4 •' I 3 I- I 2 

2'!'!striiiir. 3'".''sirin 



I 2 M 



^ 17-®- l7c 



S 



=:^o 



3 2 4 3 



14 3 1 
9746 



4 2 I 4 2 1 



* 



S""'^ StriniT 



B? MINOR. 

a-scending" vit h t h. 
MinorSisth, ami di- 
••(•endiijfif with the 
Vtajitr Seventh. 




ZS2Z 



ICC 



p 



l-'s,r..ll{ 



CT-O- 



o <=> 



■-> o 



/7 



^ o 



O o 



te 



2";'atrii.a-. 



13 4 2 3 

3'".''SlrinK. 



331 



I 



For the scale (if B Major , see Chapter MI. p . 40. 

3':!*Stri,i;C. 



B MINOR. 



R MINOR. 

asc. Milin^ with, tht' 
MinnrSixth, anil de 
scrn'tiiifif with the 
Maj'.r Smpiilh. 




Fur the scale of Cb Major, see Chapter ITI. p. 40, 

h will perhaps be thoiiy;ht extraordinary that, in these scales, I have taken the 
tfreatest care to avoid playinjr two notes with the same finger, ^Nliich has been done 
III all the instruction books hitherto published. My opinion is that it is a vicious 
method and produces a bad effect. Every one knows that a fine stj'le of playinjr 
can niily be produced by a t^""!! touch, and certainly this cannot exist in slidinjr a 
finj^er from one semitone to another; for, if the bow do not act on the striny; at the 
instant when the fiiii^er is slid, a very disag;reeable sound will be heard. It i'- true 
that, in a rather slow time, two notes may be taken with the same finger; and e\en 
an iHterval of a third, a fourth, or a fifth &c. may be thus played by a forciljle slid- 
injr of the finger, -w-hich ])tddnces a very good effect, and is called the jiortnmevfd. 

EXAMPLE 



Adagio. 



m 



p 



g 

^ 



12^2 

-f-0- 



-r^^ 



9746 



'J'hese sli(iiiit!;h, if I may so designate them, are made more 4»r less rapidlv,a((orii- 
mj;; to the expression required by the melody; hot, in a quick movement, where neatness 
forms the greatest merit, two notes played with the same finiK;er are, in my opinion^ in- 
defensible, as being wholly opposed to such neatness. If, in playing at first sight, it 
should so happen that we cannot at once determine on the best position, it wouldthen 
certainly be better to take two notes with the same finger, than not to play them at 
all; but in a wellrstudied soio, it will be far preferable to avoid doing so . For instance, 
in a sjiirred run, two notes with the same finger are indefensible. 



EXAMPLE 



In B Majiirjwith twii mitri* playpil." WA ftn tt *] " 
by the KHme fing-cr. tT < r 




2 4 I 

There is no out possessing the slightest knowledge of the Violoncello, bat must ad- 
mit that this run is very badly made; and yet such a mode of fingering is very usual. 

Here follow different ways of making this run , without using the same finger fiir 
two notes in succession . 



First WLiy,_ 
Sri & 2".'' String-N , 



Secnnd way. 

3^'i& 2";' stri,ijr». 



Third wny 
S'^ 2".'' & l^' strings. 



saint' run in A ^, "with two 



Th>' saint' run in A ^, "with two 7m\' 1. I 
THites played hy thf same finj^er. " \1^ r? ii ^ 




By aviiidini*' thi' nso of the samp 
flngtT ftir twti niit^K 4n Nuct'ssiiin . 



12 4- 

We will now give these runs, both in ascending and in descending, with the ap- 

pliiatioii oi the same finger to two notes in succession , and they will he found still 
more ^icious. 9746 



K X .A M P L E . 

ni B M.i.T 



in Al'Mrtj..r. 




19 



I 

By avoiding two nntt-s with tht- same finder. 



B M..i.ir. 



in A7 Mdj'r. 




^ 



,1^1 2 1 



">'} 0»f 



I 



'fri-sf examples might be repeated in different keys, but I think enough has been 
-ik! til prove that the method of taking contignons notes with the same finger is 
\i(i(iiis, atid tha-t it slionld by all means be avoided. The fingering of a passage is 
sometimes changed on acconnt of the mofle of bowing it; for instance, if I had to jday 
the scale of B flat through two octaves with the detached bowing, I should finger 
it simply as in the following example: 



y 




4 ' - - ^T'^ 18 12 3 

But if I had the same scale to play slurred, I should finger it as below; be. 

cause it seems to me that, by avoiding the open not^s, the tone become much 
m(ire equal. 

3' ' , l---.' 




The ear must be well exercised before these methods of fingering can be adop- 
ted, because the open iiiiit-- *ervt as rallying points for the intonation. 

I shall not farther t-nlarge on the choice of fingering, as that will always de- 
pend on the taste and ability of the perfnrintr 

There are some passages in which we must necessarily take two notes with 
ill.- same finger. These I shall give in a subsequent part of this work. 



9746 



20 



CHAPTER V. 

OF THE SCALES PLAYED ON ONE STRING. 

We will commence by K'^'"tf the scales of C major and C minor, on the 
first string, and will then continue them from tone t() tone . 

SCALK OF C, ON THK FIRST STRING. 



C. MAJOR. 



C MINOR 



— 


^ — 




o 


o -^ ^ 


I 


^; " ^ 


V 2, 

-^ 


1 3 

— O " 


1 


g 1 2 




4 


l^r^ 











2, 1 2 1 



1 2 3 



Great attention shonld be given to the fingering of these scales, as it ser\es 
as a model for the others; for, as the degrees of the scale are the same in all the 
keys, the corresponding degrees in all of them should be taken with the same 
fingers . 

In the key of C, for example, C is the first degree, D the second, E the third, 
F the fourth, G the fifth, A the sixth, B the seventh, and C the octave or eighth. 



2.11.1 3 '•'I 



4,t. 5t». .- 7.H ^ 



o. -^ 



V. X A M F LF. "f (he Brg^r. ns 



Oi 'l rf Vi' 



We will now examine some examples with the degrees and the fingering 
marked; the former above, and the latter below. 



DegTiTS. isl gli'i 3 



Si alp iif C. MAJOR. 



f 



, Aih -Sth fith 7"' £1 



O g 



O.' t .n 



Finerenuii. 



8 12 12a 



,,h Vh fith 7'" 8"^ 

" _ ^ W^ 3 



S. Hi., nf C M INOR. 



h'> o <=>- 



Ortav 



FinifrrL 



-g- I g J I j ^ ■ ^ 



9746 



Here, it is perceived, the t<inK' C, or first dei^ree, is taken with the second f i n- 
jjer, which naturally happens in the first position of the hand; bnt it is the 
second decree which chiefly demati'U atifiitinn, that havinif to be taken with 
the first finger in eNery key, aini men the succession of fingers '"ill be al 
ways the same as we have ifiven in the above scale of C. y 

It must also be observed, tli^t it is nOt the same notes, bnt the same 
degrees of the scale, which have to be taken with the same fingers, which 
regular manner of ascending the scale on one string might be called mathe- 
matical. We give the scale of D, to prove this assertion. 



'^l 



D MAJOR. 



MINOR 



i 



m 



2, 



2, 



3 



In the key of D, the tonic is D, and consequently the first degrt-e, E 
is the second, F the third, G the fourth, A the fifth. B the sixth, C ilw 
seventh, and D the octave or eighlli 

Here is a comparative example of the degrees and fingering; the former 
indicated above, and the latter below the notes, as ])efore. 



DiyTi'ps 



gri 

-©- 






yfh 



O 



D MAJOR 



D MINOR. 



Oi l.<\. 



DPgTPOS. 1st 



>n.l 



J3I 



grd 

-o- 



4*h 



.5'.*> 



ifi'h 



2 

yth 



3 

8th 



bi^ if^ ^ 



-©PTa 



Finaforinti-. 

Thi> shows that the scale of D is played, in ascending, with the same fin. 
ger.s as that of C; placed, however, iio* on the same notes, but on the same degrees. 

From this regularity of fingering, there result ' two great advantages: the 
first is, that, as the degrees of the scale are always at the same respective 
distance from each other, it greatly facilitates purity of intonation; the second, 
that the octave being always taken with the same finger, we are naturally led 
into the most advantageous position; for, in descending the scale, by placing the 
tiiMinb behind the first finger, (which it is natural to do,) we shall have a com])ass of 
tsv-o octaves, in .the key in which we are playing, directly under the hand. 

9746 



-/.-I 



'J'li prove this, let hh take again the two scales of C aiul D. Tht mark Inrtlie 
ihimih will be <J ; and it must als<> be observed, that the two heads of notes indica- 
ted below the highest C are not meant to be played, bat are merely intended to show 
that the thomb is to be placed on the two strings where those notes are stopped, atth- 
same time as the third finger is placed on the highest note, C. 



C MAJOR. 



% 



r* Strinir. 



7#^ 



e^ 



^«■^*■ 



3'".'' SI rill If. 



2""S(rine. I I 



13 12 18 



2 I 



4'"Strine- 



S 



9321 9 32ly32| 

This method of placing the thumb is to be adopted in all the scales; and by ta- 
king care not to raise the first finger, the thamb will naturally fall in its right place 
immediately behind it: but if the first finger be lifted up, the thumb will most fre- 
quently take a false position, for want of a point of sup])ort . 



I 



l^'Slriiiif. 
~*J 2. •! 3 1 



A 



r f ^ i T ff" 



2'l''strinif. 



3''.''strintr. 4'1'Strinif. 



2 1 2 



3 2 1 



V 3 2 1 



r1 , o ; f ^ 



9 3 2 • V 3 2 , 

I have not given these scales in the minor mode, because the eighth degree 1)' 
ing always taken with the same third finger, everything remains precisely tlie sauM, 
so that further comment would be useless. It maybe said that the ferale of I) is more 
simple, and ea^^ier of performance, with the following fingering. 



r sii-ii 



i 



"^ - . ^ yg ) " 



*1^ 



rn^ffrr 



2" Strintf. 



fr^ 



IE 



£ 



321 



4 1 .'^ 4 o I 



3 2 1 



V 



3 2 1 



V 



V 



i 



To this I reply, that I do not at all disapprove of this method of ascending the 
scale, as I frequently adopt it myself, because it is very con\enient and admits of the 
harmonic A being readily taken with the thumb: but as it is only aj>plicab]e to certain 
keys, those persons who are only acquainted with this method of placing the thumb, 
know not what fingering to em^iloy when they are not plaviirg in the op^n keys, name- 
ly, in D, A, Cor G; w^hilst the method of fingering which has been advocated a* 
bove, is precisely the same in every key, and always produces the same results . 



9746 



d\> major 



ob MINOR 



K f MAJOR. 



E b MINOR. 



E MAJOR. 



E MINOR. 



F MAJOR. 



F MINOR. 



We wilj transpose this scale into the Major and Mim.r keys oi US 
D flat and E flat, still contfniiiniC "n the first string 



i 



^ 



X 



2, 13 1212 32ly32lM 



1 



^m 



2".'J String ; 



m 



1 



P 



,12121832 l(/32lo • V 



2. 1312 12 3211^38lo 



± 









2, 121212 32 l(j32ln I o 

As the little fing;er is not used beyond the G shar]) and A flat 
on the first string;, the third finger is no longer employed on the 
third degree in Major scales; but the second finger, as in the Minor 
scales; the player must therefore advance it to its place. 

.^♦„ ■ ^ -^ ^ 2'!''Sfrin|r. 

I'-.tStrin^. ^^ -^ ^ ^ ■ 



^1'^ ^1 r 



-© — ©- 



is: 



2, I 2 1 2 I 2 3 2 I (^ 3 2 I y 1 y 



Hs,n„^ ^ fi^ :;^ ^a^ fa* - 2nJstrins. 

r '1 rr^r'^r | fTV-rrr.. 

~tj 8, 1 i r~i i i 3 i 1 Q 3 2 I (T 



8, 1212 12 381-(J32Io 1 

-" - 2'i^S(rin^. / 



m -0- -^ -0 ^ 2n^S(rin 

"^^^ 2^ i 2 I i i 2 3 2 i O 3~~2 \~ 



<=> o 



l«tSti 



i 



f 



'^ ■? '^ 



^ >> ! 






I 9 

o o, o 



i 



2, 121212 32 l()321(jl 1 (j, 

ls..t String. _ .^ ^ 4t f: f. f: jL i0.- 8"'*8t'-in?- /^ 



FI 



-rGI?; MAJOR ^y^ 



Vitt ^ r 



fffF,^ffffrr g 



Q g 



2, 1 2 1 2 1 2 3 2 I y 



3 2 1 



i 



f: minor. 

(GP Min-ir i*, not Hied] 



<i VI A J OR-; 



f-^ ^ r^^^r^ l ^f^^^^rr| ^ 

U^ 2, 12 12123 2 103210 '' T 



y 3 2 I o 

2'"'striTiff. ^ 



i 



Ptstring. ^ 0±-f ^-^ ± 2"^^"""' 



+ 



■e- o 



2, t 2 1 2 1 2 3 2 1 3 2 10 1 

9746 



I 



24 



l^'stn.i 



^#1^¥ 



a 



G M I NOH 



b" I I 



>ffff? , rF 



^ ■(* T*- 



£: 



^ -O- -0-, Q 



T^ T 2 r~"5 1 5 T 2 I ^ 3 2" i o r 



i 



l^.'Strinjr. 



Ab MAJOR. — ^T— b- 



i ^'t> 1 f 



# ^ £ 



_ , ■'f^«j2".''striiiir. / 



ii 



^ i2. 52. ,.^. 



^ "t; [ 2 I 5 1 2 3 g I o s 2 i T) r 

I'-.'Striiiif 



1 



Gff MINOR. 



i'\A rtf 






Ef 



-t- 



-4- 



4- 



t, 2, 1 2 I 2 1 2 3 2 1 9 3 2 1 fl i 



m 



A MAJOR. 



tf ^ f - 



^ 






*- T#. ^ 5SL HS- 



t> 2, 121212 321(^321(^ 1 

l^t String. _ ^*«^J^ £b*hA^ r"'*""^' ^. 



A MINOR. 



i 



l".' string. ^ T^ UJS «_ ^ '^.^I^ ^^aE. -^ ^ 



^ SL 



2, 12121 2 321 (J 32 ly 



V 



1 



These scales mi^ht be carried yet hijrher, bdt/ the principle and the fingering; 
of them would still remain the same. 

As I ciiinmenced with the scale of C on the first string, with the second fin 
ger pinced on the first note, there remain, to complete the scales on the first 
string, those of A (beginning with the open string ',B flat, and B natural. 



^'Slriiiii 



2';''stri,ieri. , 1^ 



A MAJOR 



A M I N O K . 



n f 






i 3 

Ii** string 



O Oct — 



'l 2 1 2 3 2 1 ^ 4 1 y I 



>*♦ String. 11 .jm-U ^ i ^n.^lstring;. , 

\ 2 1 5 2 1 o i i i O" 



-® &- 



32: 



? 3 2 » V ' V 

In this Key we may ascend to the double octave on the same string. 



A MAJOR. 

thruUi:h tsvn (ic'taves . 



^ 



1^'Strinf 



^^ J ^ 



< » ^ 



-rr- 



,. ^ , \ f 



M 






5 1 2 3 i 2~^ i 2 I 2 



E -r £ ^ J? ''^"^- 



o ^ 



974*5 



w 



2rj 



I have now tn i^ive the scales of B flat and B natural, but must first 
observe that in these, there rtccurs an exception to the general rule which 
I have sought to establish, and which has hitherto been strictly folIii\*e(l; 
namtily, that the first finger should always be placed on the second Hejiree: 
but, in the scale of B, this is not practicable, because the tonic or first de- 
gree must necessarily be taken with the first finger, and hence it would be 
impossible to take the second degree also with it, except by playing two 
not> ~ in succession with the same finger, which would produce a very bad 
effect. The following is the way of fingering these scales on one strings 



I'^'stringr. 



b1) major, ^ ^ j b Ci[ ^ r I r 



7#- ^-^ 



2"*^ string-. 



1 2 4. 1 2 



I 2 3 2 r 



9 3 2 I 



m 



^ 



o g 



p 



I'^'ibii-iiiii. . •.0. 0_\).0A. 2".'* string-. 

V '^^ ^ * ' ' * \ \ \ i * P * _ 



,o O 



1 



13 4 12 

I'-' String. 



^Jtf:t tf^t. 



¥' ^ rnr 



B I) MAJOR. «7 , I 2 

2" -0- 
llii-.nvh tu',, ,„.t.v„.. String-. :p: 



4. I 2 



.,., t • string-. TL. Jt .0. _ 



"7" 



^HMnMff 



3 I 2 



i 



1 — 5 — r 

o 



■^ — 2 — r 



3 2 1 



B MAJOR 






i)\ ^ 



f^r^f^ s 



2™ string 



H ^ 



h- 



1 2 -i^ 

11* String. 



12 12 3 2 1 



' "23 4 






2 1 

2"'^ string 



n<tr. -^ 3 



1 



12 12 S 2 1 (^ 



3 



2 I , 



1; i> here seen that, instead of the first finger being on the second degree, it is 
the second finger which takes its place; and that, on the third degree,the fourth 
finger takes the place of the third: but after thi.s, the first finger is placed on 
the fourth degree, and so on, as in the other scales. 

Here, then, are ail the scales on one string. They may be repeated" on the second, 
third and fourth strings, if desired, which wnll impart a considerable knowledjrt' of 
the finger-board. ^^^^ 



-4fi ,/ 

'\'h<- ^rri-at aflvaiitajje of this methnH <>(' f i iiireriii^- lies in its regularity; sn tti.d 
he who is al)le t« plaj' one ascending scalt |irci|H-rly, fan I'lay all the rest. Ky it, 
also, the thumb always falls in its rijy;ht ]>lare. There are ])ers(ins wfeo at nnce place 
(he thumb where it should be, but this mode of procedure is verv 'hazHr(|(His;l)ecaiise, 
in this case, the whole hand mdst skip; whilst, in following' immediat<-ly afttr the fin- 
ders, the thumb is placed much more naturally and with greater certainty, as its dis- 
tance is already measured. 

At the commencement of this article, it has been remarked that great altentioii 
should always be given to the employment of the first finger for the second degree; 
(id having now taken a review of all the scales, we should be c(iii\inre(l of this. Bui 
il is not absolutely necessary that the tonic or first degree should he faktii \Mth 
the second finger . It is true that I have done so in all the foregiiiii;; .si nles, l)e- 
cause it ap])eared to me desirable to adopt a starting point, but it will he seen 
from the examples which follow, that the tonic is taken by the serond or fourth fin- 
ger aorording to circumstances. Let us begin an octave lov^er, and we shall then see 
that the employment of the second or fourth finger often depends on the k^-y , or on 
the turn of the passages In the key of C, for example, the tonic or first degree is 
found under the second finger:- 



K X A MPLE. 



^?7^ *^ 



^ 



I"-.'- sir inn 



^ 










r^i s 12 i'2 ^ V 2 ;, V ■* 



In D;, it is found under the fourth finger. 



K X A M P L E . 



r.' String. 



Tunic. 



+ 4 1 3 i 



1 2^2 




4 



1 



K. X A M P L K 

Tuiii, with thi 
2".'* fing-pr. 



In E flat, it is taken with the second or the fourth finger, ac 
cording to the turn of the passage which precedes it 

l^'Srrlr,H 




2 I 3 1 2 1. 2 3 y 



9746 



V 2 1 




Tcjnic wi(h (he 4'*?'FingTr 

F Maji.r . -/^y-^ 



Here follows a kind of yariation on the scale, whic-h' is played M'ith the same 
fingering as the scales themselves . 

2 - 1 ? 




This passage may be played in all the keys. The following is an example of it in Eb major. 

3 

I 2 ^ ! i Sm.^ 



EP MaJ.T 

2 



(^;^'i^ f a- 




Passages of the kind here given are not always to be met with t^igether; sometimes 
they are shorter and, at others, longep: but he who dnly practises them in the different 
keys, and in the manner shown above, will never find himself perplexed. 

The passage jnst given would natnraUy lead ns to investigate many other>- which 
can be played from one end of the finger-board to the other, without nsing the 
tluimb. Thest^, however, wiH be noticed in Chapter XII. 



974fi 



2H 



supplemeKit 

TO THE SCALES ON ONE STRING. 



Althoiijrh this article is a coirtinuatuin of the preceding, I have considtired it 
desirable t« give it separately, in frrder to rfiider it clearer and more intelligible. 

There are two methods of ascending the scales on one string, after the thumb 
has taken its place; and ajthongh somewhat different from each other, both are 
very good. I shali not venture to decide which is the b>'';t,as so much depends 
on habit . Some persons find the first way the easier, while others succeed bet 
ter with the second . 

Suppose the thumb is placed on F and B flat. 



EXAMPLES 



Thumb Position 



First way F 



I 



M-^J-. ^ ) i^ ^ I 



-^5^ <a* — I — f- 



m 




— er 



Thiuiih Position 



I 



i.-c.nd way F MhJ.t. ZZ 2 ^ ^ '* || 



^ I . If 






— ^ 



Xow take H toiif higher, in the key of Gr . 



K.ivT wav. 



rny. 







i=^ 



Tht hHrae fingering is empl(i\ed both in the major and in the minor. 1 her? 
give a few notes before the scale to prove this more fully. 



First Tvay F Major. /%, t? -»■ 



I : • H bm ' Wfaai Big^ Bil l iiii^ i,^ I I 1^^^^^ I ||„i,||^„^p[- 



2"^StrniiC- 







yl2 1212 32ly ly32 y 2 I 

9746 



f 



29 



S.i^j>iiif. way. 
F Majnr. 



^ ' hcl :; 



^^-p. ^^-^f^f f , r^ 




These scales are always played with the same fingers in all the major and 
minor keys; it is only the thumb which has to change its position; »id it shnald 
te observed that its place on the first string is always on the fonic. 

I shall give, as a final example, the same passage in A major and A jninor. 




It may perhaps have appeared that, in exhibitiiijj; the scales on one string, I 
have desired to prohibit the manner of ascending" at once with the thumb. It is true 
that that method is not snitable in all keys; but in the open keys of A,D,Gr, and CV 
it is very advantageous, for two reasons: first, the number of hxrmonics which these 
keys contain, renders the sound extremely pleasing; and secondZy, it is easy and con. 
venient always to place the thumb on the harmonics, in ascending. To obtain an har- 
monic, the string must not be pressed close to the finger-board, but the finger 
must only be placed lightly upon it. I shall indicate where this mode of perform, 
since is to be adopted by the sign o signifying the harmonics?^ 



■^ In the orij^inal French edition, the AaihttY ubps A .^. the harmnnic Kij^,. which k^s^ feere been changed to O, as beinjf 
ihr mark nnw iff^neraPv rniplnyed fur this purpose. Kl>. 974^6 



^^ „„j„, . 'T* string. 

I ^ ^ ^ n 



O 2'"'srrinH-. 



I'-'Sti-inif 




y I 2 -S y I 2 3 




y~8 I y 3 2 I 9 3 



These examples might be given in a thonsand different ways, and greater elegance 
he im|iarted to them: but I have preferred keeping closely to the scales, as these are 
what I had to treat of; which I have done at greater length, from the conviction in my 
<>\Mi iiiiiul that they cannot be too perfectly^ known. 

97461 , 



CHAPTERVl. '" 

OFTHE FOUR POSITIONS ONTHENECK. 

Tbere »rt!r four positions on the neck, and it is in these thiit the fourth or little 
fin^wE is Bsed; bnt after they are passed it is fto loiijrer employed . 



EXAMPLE OF THE FIRST FOUR POSITIOJVS 



First StriBg. 



SeetHttd Strint 



.•"'i'-:* Position."- •. 



i*^ Po 



S'.'lpof, 



•■4"' !•(.«: 



r f i V f f | f f f^^^^ 



_,'•■' INt p,«iti„Ti. "■•-. .■' 8".'! Pom 



f 



i 



1 3 ? I 2 T^ 

Brttpos:"'-. .' 4**'P.»i:""' 



r 1 r r f 



12+1 8 

-■■'r':^ Position! ■■■•. .•■'2"''P 






Third String. =^ 



) ' 



^M 



13 4 



•■'i*'.* Position." ■••. 



1 8 4 

■■ 2ndp„j,, "• 



1 8 



•■'Sr<*Pos: ■• 



P 



I 3 



Fourth String.. =^ 



4 ' aXTQ 

-s^ '^ q 4 . 



34 1 2 



1 2 4 



^ 



I 2 



Thus, from the lowest C to the first G on the first string, the little finger 
is used, even if tKe G be sharp; but when we have arrived at A, the octave of 
the first string, at T> on the second string, at G on the third and at Cpn the fourth, 
which are respectively the octaves to the open strings, the little finger is rejected and 
the third employed instead of it, because the thumb can then come behind, and we 
shall have a compass of two octaves under the hand. 

Let as take again the first fotfr positions on the first string, in A major, 
and add to them the fifth position, in order to see that the little finger is dis- 
continued and that the thumb can very naturally be placed on the fifth.JEand A. 



9746 



32 



EXAMPLE . 



f 



ir string-. 



^ 



1 3 1 3 * 

S:dme Piisitiim 



^m 



2 4 



2 4 1 2 4- 1 2 3 




7^»nrf ' 3 



1 2 



3 V 






I have merely given this example to show that the little finger is disused at" 
the octave of the open string, where the fifth position occnrs; bat, as there is no 
rule without an exception, I now proceed to show that the little finger nday be em- 
ployed in the fifth position, though only where the A of the first string is flat, 
for then the octave of the open string will not have beea reached . 



$ 



_ 4*.^ finder. 

Let us return to the first four positions on the four stings, and we shall 
see that, in the key of D flat, the A flat on the' first string is taken by the little 
finger, at the fifth position . 



I'-.* P.rsiliun. 



a".*! Pi) 



S"".'' Pos: 



4'" P„ 



Fourth String. @ ^ l | b 






1-^' p. IS, t inn. 



T ■] 

2"^ P 



' ..." 

,••' 3':'^ Pus; 



4 I 2 

4th p,,^ 



Thin, S.n,„, g.^ J J j I J iJjJ ^ [ 1 ^ ^ 



l*-' Pflsiticm. 



1 -3- 

2"A Pus: 



Second String. -*^ 



1 



''.3'"'l P..s: ■•• .''4'^ Pns. 

— ^ 



1^.' Pnsitinn. 



2 4 

■' 2".<» Bis: "■ 



2 ?~ 



1 2 ?"«7 



•■'srJ P(,s: 



.■ 4th p„ 



First string. ^ bl,\ 



fe 



f r f i r r fif 



A'h Pcisiti.m. 



^^ 



4*.*' Pom "•. .•'Sr'* P,.s: '" 



■ 2'"' Pms: 



I 3 4 ^ I 4 

9746 



r r (If ' r 



i 



In order to acqnire a thorough knowledge of the neck portion of the finger-board, tlie 
first four positions should be well practised. Here, therefore, follow some successions of 



:i.H 



scales, which appear to me w;ood for this purpose. +'*'?:•- :i^ S'">'P">>s oida, 

, lisa — ^ lay (Tii — r-7-? — f"^! — i a 4. 



rn rr* j^ ^ i p"ti ' U {^, h < |:><i f>- t ■ t r * u - i ^ '^^^3^ 

^_- ..^ _ a^'iPo.-, ,st„... . — i 




9746 



.'^4 



■"' Fn^i til 



8'!i 



n<l 



AnM(r.rsh..rt Kx.T.-is,- in D, (g): tf fj ^ ^ 10 m ) ^ ^ (^ ^ 
f'n.m one Slriiijf Jn amifhpr '*-^ j^ v7 p [ P- | _ 1 

Hs ^ 12* I 





The last groap of notes is taken in what is called the half- position, or half- shift, 
which certainly forms a part of the first position; bwt in order to avoid a change of 
terms, I give it under the name by which it is known. Here is an example: 



4"^St 



riny. 



3":'*StriTiir. 



Half Position. 



W^ 



-±±. 



12. 



#^ ' 4 
^ 1 2 * 



2 4 



i^r rThi ' IT I 'I I ^1 



The 19*.'' Exercise of Part II of this work must be played throughout in this half 
position, without . removing the hand. 

1-:* Position^- a".<W: Sr^PoSji ,stp„,. ^ 2"''p„sr S-^ - 



AnoihtT EXAMPtK, 
in E Majon 



^ 



P 











P 




3+18 



half P"s: 3':t-'i 

^^^ 0-^ 



m 



n 1 2 12 4 

T 2"'' 



^~? 1 3 4 



£S 






12 



I 2 



^ ; Tg* L ' * 






5fe 



■#• — 0- 



m 



4 2 4 

The foregoing exam])Ies are sufficient to illustrate the manner of playing in the first 
four positions; and it will be well to practise them, as it is indispensable to be able 
to shift the hand on the Violoncello . Indeed, it must have been already observed, that 
we cannot even play the first scale of C minor without shifting, on account of the A 
flat which occurs therein, and it is the same with many others. 

This leads us to present the scales played by successions of three fingers, without 
the use of the open strings, as the previous exercises will have prepared both for the 
comprehension and for the performance of them. 

9746 



35 



CHAPTER VIL 

OF SCALES PLAYED BY SUCCESSIONS OF THREE FINGERS, 
WITHOUT THE USE OF THE OPEN STRINGS. 



In order to anderstand these scales perfectly, a little calcnlatioo is requisite . 
The scale consists of eight degrees , including the octave which completes it. The 
double scale contains fifteen degrees, including its double octave; and the triple scale, 
twenty two degrees, its triple octave included . 

The lowest note of these, scales mast always be taken with the first finger ; 
and as this mode of fingering is suitable to all scales in which the number of sharps 
or flats prevent the use of the open strings, we shall give the first example in D flat . 
In commencing a single scale with the first finger, the last note will be under the se- 
cond finger, because twice three are six, and two more make eight. 



^S 



4-^^ String-^ 



^ 



Ui') f 



3^'l string- 



In this scale, the stop of the octave by the second finger is very advantage- 
ous, as we are thereby enabled to do many things relative to the key in which we 
are playing. 



Example, in playing the scales of D flat and A flat. 

+'.hstrin.. ^ 3-lStnn^. ___^ * '"} firing. S^.'^Stru^ 




The tonic being taken with the first finger, its octave will always come under 
the second, in whatever key we may be playing, even iu the open keys.if we a\(iidthe 
«pen strings . 

9746 



36 



\S'r will iiov proceed to the double scale, in the same key . This, I hase be- 
fore said, rontaiiis fifteen deg;rees,iiicladin>5 the double octave; so that , in ascendirijjj 
by siH cessions of three fing;ers, there will be five moNements of the hand, and the 
double octave will come under the little fingei'*' 



4'*' Strinjf 



EXAMPLE 




If we desire to ascend the triple octave in the sanae key, by similar successions of 
fingers, the second string must be used farther up. 

It has been already observed, that the triple scale, including its triple octave, con- 
tains twenty- two degreed. Seven movements of the hand by successions of three fingers 
make twenty- one degrees, and as the thumb is placed between the sixth and seventh 
movement, and reckons for one, it completes the number twenty-two . 



Sr^String-. 



EXAMPLE 

iif the tripli-SiHli'. 




This method of fingering the double scale brings us at last to the fourth finger, 
which is proper . In the triple scale, the like method finally brings us to the third fin- 
u;tr, and the thumb being placed behind, we have a compass of two octaves under the 
hand, in the key in which we are playing. The same thing occurs in all the keys. 

9746 



37 



The sHuie result will be attained in the (i})en kev^ ■ l>y aviiidiijg the use of the 
i)|jei) striiig;s . I will ii;ive one example only, in the key of C . 



4*''Strinkr. 



A - St niiii-. 



Z"."* Strintr- 



Tripl.' SCALK i)f C 



-^—^^i 



I 



J j J J J J ^^ 



l^* Strinar.- 



w 



m 



r. r I I ^ 



1 



I do not consider it necessary to multiply these examples, as I am here only wri- 
ting for professors, or very advanced amateurs. Beginners should not. even look at this, 
as it requires much practice in playing the Violoncello, to be able to understand and 
perform it; otherwise it is liable to give rise to a false intonation, which the open 
strings serve as rallying points to avoid . 

If we do < not wish to ascend the triple scale entirely by successions of three fingers ; 
then, after the fourth finger, at the end of the double scale, it is only requisite to play the 
scale on one string, as I have before given it (see p. 20 & after) and the same resulfwill 
be attained . 



4*.'' Strinsr. 



2".'* String-. 



EXAMPLE 

in d1>. 



^ 



^ 



m 



1 2 4 



9 4 I 




g 4 I 3 



I 2 -^ 2 

This double scale being finished, the E is taken with the first finger, as in 



the scale on one string. 



I':* string- 




And so it is in every key. 

It should be observed that these different methods of fingering, instead of prot- 
ving injurious t« each other, combine very well together. 

The double scale of E flat, as it is given in the following example, may be per- 
formed with great facility. 






S^iine Pos: 
„H . -A 2".<* string-. 

an^s™^ n*S.rin.. ^ *f £f J** ^Tp^ S-i^String. 






974S 



S8 



Haviiijr said enough, 1 think, to show how these scales are to be played,] Shall 
now jrive in due ordfir those which I promis«(d in Chapter IV; and which', bein^ in 
keys that have many sharps or flats , cannot be easily played except in this way. 



SCALK OF 
o\> MAJOR. 




SCALE 



SCALK OF 

d\> minor, 

ii^rnniirii^ wit h the Minor 
Sixth, ..nd dt'srendiii^^with i 
thi- VI.iJDr Seventh. I 



S f 4 L K 

(•; MA JO 



S C A L F. 
Frf MAJOR 



4*.'"fitrinjr. 



Sr-* String-.^ 8".'Wnr 



- O O '^ 
1 2 * 



-^ < => '^ ° 



O O ^ 



1 2 ^ i 2 ? i 3 ¥~ 



g- ^ 



g o 



351 



9 o 



1 — I — 1 — J — r — ? §■ 




4*.''Striiig-. 



° ^ O ., ^ ^^ 



m 



V 






W 



4«.hstri„y. SV^StHng^ ^J^!!^:!^— ^-^^T^ 

-=■ -O- 25 T 7 4 I 8 ? i 2 5 i 3 ?^ 
f 3 4. ' "= 



4*.''Strinl 



I 4 2 1 42 1 4;3 7'='-©--2K- 

+ 3 Y 

•• 3."StrinEf. _— ^— ^ — IrT^ U"©- — 

~C5 — ® — ^^ 4 — I 2 ? 1 5 3= i 3 4 

4 I ■ 



1 -3 






^ "^^ o o ., ; 

T ? 2 I ¥~~2 I ^ 




4-f.'iStrin«-. SV' 



SC A LK OF 

g\> major. 




2".'' 



nd 



O O - 






-©- -ffi 



5.9 



""g ? [ 2 ? I 2 ? i "3 IT 






4 3 14 



° O o II 



The scale of G f lat miuor is never used, on account of~the double flats B and E 



SCALE OF 
G^l MAJOR. 



SCALE OF 
G# MINOR. 



SCALE OF 

G# MINOR, 
asfpndiiia: wiih Ihi- Miliar 
Sixth, and fK'srftniin^ with 
the M.ijiir Bevonlh. 



SCALE OF 
Ah MAJOR. 



S C A L K O F 
.k\> MINOR. 




ond 




®— J— 4 — I — 2 — i — I — g — ¥ — r 



~i I — g — ^ 



° c^ o 




f — [ — 1 — i — i r 



^^ O gs .-> 

• ° ^"^ ° o o 



T — ? — r 



3':''strine. 



and 



1 2 ¥ I 2 ¥ 1 3 T 






3'".'*Strinir 




2 4 12 4 12 



4 «7 i 2 4 r 



3 4 



^^ 




"° -°.^ = „,(£>= ° M „ ,^^J : 






o <J 



t* . 3 4 

"a 



^ 4 i 2 4 t7 i 5 4 i 3 4~ 



4 2 14 

974(S 



'"'--'-■. . If - 



40 



S C A L K OF 

Ab MINOR, 

;.*-.i'ndinjf with Ihc Min"r 
fiistti,^nd df'sci-inlinar wi'h 
Ihi- M .ji.r BcMiilh. 



scALK or 

B MAJOR- 



SCALE OF 
c\> MAJOR. 



I 'v'-bto ,. e ^i i 



..o i M '^'° 



4Ty 1 2 ♦ I 



V 




The scale of C flat minor is never 'used, on account of the double flats B,Eaiut"A. 



CHAPTER VIII. 

OF THE CHROMATIC SCALE, 
WHICH IS SUITABLE TO AL-L . KEYS. 

This scale is the same both in the major and in the minor mode; since, in ascend— 
injr or descendin}!; from a tonic to its octave, we pass thronjrh the twelve chromatic de- 
-frrees, Whether the mode be major or minor. The mode, therefore, can only be determined 
by what precedes or follows this scale . It is n«atral in itself, and may be placed indif- 
ferently either* in major or in minor . 

The fingering, too, is the same in every key, becaase the key can only be determimd 
by the point of departure and that of termination; therefore, it will be seen, when I present 
the examples of the scale in the twelve chromatic keys, that, in respect to fingeriug,they 

are all alike. 

9746 



4i 

This scale is "ascended by three finders, the fourth or little finder beinjj sup- 
pressed as useless, because the open striD^s always fall where that woffld otherwise 
be necessary. I therefore refrain from giving it with the employment of the fourth 
finger; and that for two reasons . First, because it is opposed to a regular methljd 
of fingering; and secondly, because the open strings are of great assistance as ral- 
lying points for the intonation ; for, if it be difficult to play a diatonic progression 
perfectly in tune, a chromatic one must be still more so. 

In saying, above, that the fourth finger should be suppressed, I mean in the 
coarse of the scale, which is ascended by regular successions of three fingers; Inrt, 
it may be nsed to finish the scale, when necessary, as will be seen in the snbse — 
■ quent examples . 

It must be carefully observed, the following notes are always taken/with the 
first finger . 

The E natural on the fourth string: 

The B natural on the third string: 

The F sharp on the second string: 

The C sharp on the first string . 



EXAM PL 



m 



m 



We will now jrive this scale in all the keys , in order to show that we always 
aspend with the first finjier on the four notes indicated above. 



9746 



42 



in C. 



BC A LB 

in Dp. 



6C ALK 
in D. 



SCALE 

in e1>. 



S C A L K 
in K. 



S C A L K, 
ill V. 



SC A L V. 

in F.:}. 



m 









12 3 



I 8 3 • 2 3 '^ [ i 3 1 2 3 .0 1 2 3 






jjJvv i r"rrt^'^^^^^ ii 



83 18| 11,230 I 23 4 

3 Q I 2 3 



^^^f^W^ 






S ^ I 2 3 



- T-s S ' 2 » " ' " ' ' 



S 



"111 9 3 J S fa i 2 3 i 2 3^ 



'^^7 2*3 ; 7^23 1 2 3 I I 1 i i 3, g , 2 3 , 8 3 



^ 



f 2 3 P I 2 -^ 



:i^=a1f 



^ 



rj ^ ttJ rvy S 



^ 



^ 



7*-tt7*-ftf- 



^ 



1230 l^^i230l?3123 4 



i 



'^ ^jj i J>u^.NjJvvrrrVV 

Oftf ' I ^2 3 ^l 2 3 ^ I I ,„ r- 



yy^tf|^-^^^^ 



8 3 



12 3 12 



3 18 3 12 3 1 2 



i 



M 



-.0 *%* ' : ^ 



J *ffJ 



^f*^ 



4ac5*4 



#=> 1 2^ 1.2 3 01 



^t-!*r f f r 



,>v?rf^ff*^ 



' ' 1 

2 3 1 



2 3 tt 1 2 3 12 3 12 3 



S C A L K 

ill «. 



S C- A L F. 

in \V 



w 



> M ' ' ^V'0 -^ 



I '•-=■ 



#4^ *^'r^r ^ = I I I i ' ' ' II 

¥"^5 I > J 9 3 1 2 3 ^ 2~1 1 2~3 + 



3 12 3 



w 



-ir o- 



^ gwrJ i rvr'i'Yt^r'^^ ' ^'^^^'^''^ 



1 T 8 3 1 3 3 I I I 1 2 3 123 123 12 Si 2 
18 3 



SCALE 
in A. 



^^ 



rw 



d'(, d ^P 



T^T 2-3 O'l 



9 s " M I I TJ 2 3 12 r^ 



2 3 , 2 3 >' , , ^ ; 2 3 
9746 



4:i 



SCALE OF B FLAT 



There is here an exception to the rule, as the fourth finj^er is once nsedtotake 
the Gr on the first string; the reason of which is, that if we were i^lways to procted 
by regnlar snccessions of three fingers, as in the other scales, we should have to fi- 
nish with the first finger, which would be very awtward . 



SCALE IN sb 



■f ' ii iujiJJiJiJ^^^^r'rr''r''rrrr ^ 

2 1 difference. 



Here follows another method of playing this sCale, without the fourth f ingtjic , 
which is perhaps more convenient . 



SCALE IN B b< 



f i jj js V;jJ''''%rr''r"rrYr^mi i 

^ ha h-J^ij-^^^ l^t' I i -3 y 8 '3 ll '2 3 ' 1 8 18 1 8 3 " 
% ' differene**. 



I N B 



U^i^»^^ 



-Yt^To*T2"3 > 



^ ^ 



<+ Q 1 2 3 



1 2 I3 



ll '2 I3 '1 '2 3 1 



m 



8 3 18 



IN C 



.< ^1 II I ij.iJaJr-r>rr,-rrr^V^i 

•7 -©- tt-J- ^#^9 3 123 I 2 I3 ll '2 I3 1 2 3 1 n I I S~"^ 



o "1^ n ♦'T 2 3 
2 3 1 



I may assure those who are inclined to practise this scale, that they will be 
able to perform it with neatness and brilliancy in every key . These species of 
chritmatic runs are, besides , very useful; as , in embellishing an Adagio, in Cadenzas 
&c . The ST* Exercise in Part 11 of this work is \*'ritten entirely in the chromatic ge- 
nu-, and iither examples will be found at N"" 9 and JO -of the Passages in Chap-XII, 

pages 99 & 101. - 

9746 



44 



CHAPTER IX 

OF HARMONICS. 



A distended string, when put into vibration and lightly toached in the middle 
by the finger, gives its octave; and from this central point, whether the hand be pass- 
ed downwards towards the bridge, or upwards towards the nut, the same sounds (calletl 
harmonics) are produced, and precisely in the same order, by lightly touching the string. 
This circumstance, therefore, demands that we should examine it separately under 
these two relations. 

First Division of the string, proceeding from the centre or octave, and passing the 

hand downwards towards the bridge . We shall take the A string for an example . 

Tiffure of the A string. 



b 



Mt 



In thp ipiddle, the string- g-ives the Octare (ir H. 

At two- thirds, the Octave of the Fifth, nr 12*^ 

At three -fipurths, the double OctiiTe,iir 15'^ 

At f<i\ir- fifths, the double OctiiTe of the Third, or IV}' Major 
At fire-sixlhs, the double Octave of the Fifth , or 19'!* 

At seven eitchths, the triple Octave, or 22". *... 



3n<i^e 



Octave or 8*11, A, 



I2tl! , E 



Double Octave, or IStil, A. 

17 y; C sharp. 
19tJ! , E . 

Triple Octave, or 221^, A, 



9746 




4.7 

T}ie foUovv-ing example shows the manner of writinjr the sounds in this first diviviou. 



o 
jS2 



«<=. 



o 
i2. 



y 














/f 














fi) c* 














vu 














*J 


Op»n String 


gt.'' 


12t.h 


15th 


17thn,ajnr, 


19t.b 


22nd : 






or octave 


or octave 


or ^Icnihle 


f>r dftiihh^ (ictaTe 


or double 


or triple mtave ; 






(if tte open 


of the 


octave <if 


nf the major 


octave of 


of the : 


.... 




string- . 


fifth. 


the open string* 


third. 


the fifth. 


open string". \ 



It should be remarked that, in this first division, the string gives the same sounds 
at the places indicated whether it is stopped firmly by the fingers in the usual way, 
or touched lightly by them in order to produced the harmonics; the only difference 
being, that the harmonics are a little softer . This is the reason why players on the 
Violoncello, in ascending by the notes of the perfect chord through the whole length 
of the string, make great use of the harmonics, which produces a pretty effect. 
We will give an example of this; observing that the notes which are unmarked must 
be stopped firmly by the fingers, while those which have the sign o (indicating the 
harmonic) placed over them, uuist only be lightly touched. 



o 

Si. 



is. ^ - 



ffl. zz 



Tonic, 



KXAMPLK , 



1 



351 



^t^ 



10= 



i 



..penstrinc S"".'! S^.h gt.h Wl" 12*.^ IS^.h lYt.^ 19t.h 22".^ 

It will here be seen that the third, fifth and tenth are not harmonics, and conse- 
quently the string must be firmly pressed- down to produce these notes . The same 
thing occurs on the <ithtr three strings, and in the same proportions. 
Here follow ei/tinplis on the 2'V' .^''.' u 4'.^ strings. 



2. String, D. 



S':' String. G. 



m 



P 



^ »£ § = 



-©- 



^^1 



-<s- 



=«^ 



o 
-0_ 



A 5 E 



1 



4'.'' String, C. 



^ 



974.H 



125= 



^ 



o 



H 



4-^ The methcifi of fingerinjf the notes before gi\eii,on the first string, is a.s fol- 
lows ; and the same is applicable to the other three strings . 



1 fi^ ^ = 



¥ 



:4tai 



in: 



One half of the harm<)nic string being now known, by this first division, let us 
pass on to the second; in which the string is similarly divided, bnt in an inverted 
direction; that is to say, in proceeding from the centre, and passing upwards towards 
the nat, we shall find that the same harmonic sounds are produced . 

SECOND DIVISION OF THE STRING. 

Fi0une- of the A string. 

Jfut °\S A 



it BeTen-eig^hths, the string (rivew the triple Octarc, or 22"!*.. 

At fire-iixths, the double Octare of the fifth, or 19*.*' 

At four-fifths, the double Octare of the major third, or 17',". 

At three -fourths,' the double Octave, or 15*? 



At one-third, the Octare of the fifth, or \2^^. 



In the middle, the Octare or 8*.''. Octave or 8tb, A. 



Triple Octave .>p 22!i:*, A. 
19*J}, E . 
17LL', C sharp . 

Double Octave or ISl*! , A. 

12*1; , E . 



Bridge 



S?*^ 




47 
The foilovring; example sh<iv\-s the way of "writiiiy; the harmouics in thi>> seccind ili- 
\isi((ii,the lower strive being added to indicate "the effect which these,' sounds shniild 
produce on the ear . 



HARMONICS, 



EFFECT.m th.EAR. 



/^ 





o 


4'> fing-er. 
O 


3'".^fln«-,T. 



8".'*fina-pr. 
O 


I . filiifPr. 



Open Strirtf. 






J 








L 




1 










fl C 


D O 








1 












« 




) 














t> 




12«h 

;0^ 


1.5*." 


17«.h 


1 Olll 11 


22".'* 


T.mic. 
Opfn String-. 




J 














i 
















r 


•\ 












CT 


V 


) 














'*/ 


Octiive. 


12*.h 


15t.h 


n'h 


19th 


22".'! 


Tnniv. 



The lower stave will clearly demonstrate, that the sounds obtained from this se- 
cond division of the string are precisely the same as those given by the first division, 
although the procedure is diametrically opposite . 

Here, also, two things have t<> be observed; first,' it is absolutely requisite to place 
the fingers very lightly on the string, in order to produce the harmonics; experience 
and practice not only proving this , but also that they must be placed nearly flat 
upon the string, and even near the bend of the first joint, as these sounds are then 
more easily brought out . Secondly, the manner of noting these harmonics is some- 
what faulty, as the last two indicated would not speak if they were taken by the 
fingers exactly where they are marked . For example, the C natural which gives 
the nineteenth should be taken rather higher, and also the B which gives the twen- 
ty-second, or triple octave . This must be decided by the ear. They have, however , 
always been WTitten in this manner, without any comment; but I have thought pro- 
per to notice the above circumstance, it being incontestably true. 

There is another division of the string, which I have not yet spoken of ; it 
is that which gives the major seventeenth, which is always pr-^duced when the string 
is divided into five parts .Without troubling, however, to measure these parts, the 
hariiKinic here mentioned can be obtained by taking either of the notes gi^en in 
the following example. 



9746 



4S 



HARMONICS. 



F.FFKCT. 



10 



th 




S'.'i 



I7t.h 

o 



tt" fr ee 



ftp jte ^ 



th 



17*,'> 

o 



IT'.h 



o 



Stnpped. Harmtinio. 



#ffl. 



4^ 



Sti'pped. Ha.rmonie 



#ffl 



i^ 



Stopped. Harmnnio. 



#^ 



#^ 



Stopped. Harmonii 



#i2. #-ffi 



3rd ]7t_h fith lyth jQth ]7tji ]7t_h 



17 '.f 



th 



By trying this example, any one may easily convince himself that the string al- 
ways gives the same harmonic, no matter on which of the four places indicated 
the trial is made . 

Whoever has made this trial on one string may repeat it on the other three, 
and the result will be always the same: for which reason, and also in order tli 
save space, I have deemed it unnecessary to transpose the examples. 

These two divisions of the string, and that of the major seventeenth, ought to 
have imparted a sufficient knowledge of the harmonics;iievertbeless I should rtuiark 
that the triple octave harmonic, near the bridge, is hut little used, it being so very 
difficult to produce . Yet I have heard some persons take it admirably ; this, howe- 
ver, depends greatly on the excellence of tile string, on skill, and on much practice. 



ON THE MOST CON VEN I ENT, AND THEREFOkE THE MOST USUAL METHOD OF PER- 
FORMING THE HARMONICS ON THE NECK OF THE INSTRUMENT. 



To produce a succession of harmonics on the neck, the hand must be placed in 
the third position, as they there come out the most easily: besides, in this position, 
M'e ha\e the power of producing on each string a harmonic which I shall term ar- 
tificial (''factice"j ; hj means of which, it will be found we have several harmonic 
scales under the hand . 



974.6 



49 



Here are the harmonics which fall uatiirally under the hand in the thini |lo^lti(lll. 



H AHStONICS. 



EFFECT. 



^ 



r.' Strine. 



SL -^ 



^^ 2".'* string. 



I 8 4 



F*r* String. 



rn: 



o 



I 3 4 



ja ^— 



t^ 



3 . Sirina^. 

O O O 



2"«String-. 3':'*sti-ing-. 



4'^ Stpinic- 
O O- O 



I 



31:: 



8 4 



3E 



3a: 



4''*"striiig-. 



Here follow the same harmonics, ranjred in the hest order and snccession of 
which they are susceptible, it being understood that we always remain in the third 
position . 



HARMONICS. 



EFFKCT. 



/' 


O 


o 




-©- 


o 


o 




o 


o 


o 





(m\' C7> ■*-' II 


vt). 










c^ 












^_- 














tIT> 








— 19— 


.s. 


#^ 


-©- 


-CL 


S. 


-©- 








O 


'ih 
















— ^ 


© 


C-i 1 


4d ^ It 



On refering to the lower stave of this example, it will be seen that the scale Is 
not entire. I will write these notes again on ^another stave,' and mark M'ith dots 
the notes which are required to complete the scale or diatonic succession. 



O ^ ji _ C 



i 



HCT- 



I 



In order, then, to render the diatonic succession complete, the three notes Gr, C 
and F are wanted. These can be obtained by what I have designated artificial 
harmonics, a term which I venture to use because a moveable nut is made of the 
first finger, as will be ))resently shown. 



9746 



30 



The second strinu; is D. 



I 



SeCMtnd Striiiif. Open niite. 



By placing the first finj^er on this second string^on its perfect foarth_G, the 
harmonic produced will be the double octave of the open note . 



HAH MONICS. 



EFFECT. 




EXAMPLE . 

o 



13= 



From this example it may be seen, that a finger placed on the fourth note of 
any open string produces the harmonic double octave of the string itselfrConset(n«it-- 
ly, if we press the above G firmly down, with the first finger, and then touch light- 
ly the C following, with the fourth finger, on the same striiig , (wjiich C is a per- 
fect fourth higher than the before mentioned G,) we shall obtain the harmonic 
double octave of the stopped note G , 

In the follo^ving examples, I shall mark by a dot the note which is to be press- 
ed down, and by a semibreve that which is to be touched lightly in order to obtain 
the harmonic . It will also be observed that the finger which presses down the note 
6,10 the next example, acts as a moveable nut. 

4* . fing-er, touohiiig- lig-htly. 
o 
f 
H AR MONICS. 



K FJ-KCT. 




This is the first note that was wanted in the preceding diatonic succession. 
By taking C, on the third string , with the first finger pressed dowK , and pla- 
cing the fourth finger lightly on F, the fourth above , we shall obtain the se- 
cond note required , which is C . Similarly, by taking F, on the fourt^ string, with 
the tir>>t finger pressed down, and placing the fourth fihger lightly on B flat, 

9746 



31 



the perfect fourth above, we shall obtain F, the third note required to complete 
the diatonic saccessioii . 

Here follows an example of the last two notes, as also of the G before given, 
in order to show. the three at one view. 



HARMONICS. 



EFFKCT. 



4*,*'' fineor. 



4'. fing-er. 



4. finafpr. 



(^* * 1 






IZ)- 






v_^ 


* 


ni^ 








I . fing"er pressed dim-n 

-&- 


l^.^finger pressed dovn. 

-©- 


fi fing-er pressed di»vn. ' 


u 






f 








f 


\ 






V 


) 






-eV 


G 


C 


F 



Having now obtained the three harmonics which were deficient, we can descend 
in diatonic order . 



B X AMFl. E . 



HARMONICS. 



EFFECT. 




We may aacend in the likemannifn 



It may perhaps be thought that I contradict nayself in regard to the fingering; 
because, instead of a major third, which forms the usual distance between the first 
finger and the fourth, there is an interval of a fourth between them, in order to ob- 
taip the artificial harmonic .This stretch, however, is called in Violoncello playing, 
the extension of the little finger, and should not be needlessly adopted; but it is 
sometimes highly advantageous, as in this case, no other means being available . 
It is also indispensable in playing double stops, of which T shall give some ex- 
amples; and in arpeggios , where both the fourth finger and the first have to be 
extended . 

a74.6 



32 



Let IIS return, however, to the harmnnics . The natural harmonics (namely, those 
ViSiirh arise- from the alifjuot divisions of a string;) are invariable; but the artiliciaJ 
may be varied: since, in pressing; down the first fing;er on any part of a strii]g;,and 
li;';htly touching; the same string; with the fourth finder, at the distance of a perfect 
fourth from the first, we shall obtain the harmonic double octave of the note un- 
der the first finger . 

For example, if we descend by chromatic degrees with the first fing;er,as shown 
in the next example, we shall obtain the harmonics in the same order. 



HARMONICS. 



First Stritig. 



EFFECT. 



4 . finifnr. 



(y 1-,' i^> ' i^.' 

1^ f'in^i'r prPNSPci dnwnjur miiveabi 




4,th 



^ 



o 



Ih 



33: 



ble mit. 



te 



i^ 



4in 



4fh 

o 



M 



H A R MONICS. 



Sfjconrf String. 



EFFECT. 



o 




r.*fing-i-r. 



4th 

o 

p.. 



#^ 



3 



4' 



,th 



4,th 

o 



^a 



th 



If 



\^ 



HARMONICS. 

Third Stj-ing-. 

EFFECT. 




o 



1 . fiiiffer. 



4,th 
o 



3a: 



.Q. 



4ih 
O 



^ 



4(_h 
o 



ET 






w 



th 



l"* 



\^ 



4.«.h 
o 



roi 



H \ R MONICS. 



Fourth String 



EFFKCT. 




9 

I . f'inifcr. 



th 



4th 

o 



3=5= 



I-.' 



"gy 



b "*- 



4th 
o 



i-;* 



4th 

o 



,th 



te 






I 



9746 



53 



I h«Ne not written the fourth below thf last note of eacli of these examples, 
that beinjj; )fi\eu,in each case, by the open strintf . 

When we can perform the preceding chromatic successions, we shall easily learn to 
produce the two chromatic aotes in the following exercise , These will be found very 
useful, as by their means we shall be enabled to play various scales. 

EXAMPLES lA' THE THIRD POSITION: 



HARMONICS. 



EFFECT. 



w=^ 







o 



^ 



=JP* 



^ 



Z5S1 



#:©: 



-» — rr- 



i 



As soon as we thomujrhly understand, and have acquired a certain degree of fa-, 
cility in prodiiciii}/, these artificial harmonics, we may perform the four following 
scales, withi'iit quitting the third |)osition ; namely, those of A,D,GandC major. 



EXAMPLE OF THESE FOUR SC.4LES I.\ THE THIRD POSITIO.Y . 



HAR MONICS. 



Scalu of A Major. 



EFFECT. 



o 

.2. 



w 



o 



o 
O 



^ 



=r^ 



■^ 52. 



ini 



1 



i 



HARMONICS. 
Scdlf of D Major. ■ 
EFFECT. 

HARMONICS. 
Scalt' of G Major.t 
KFFKCT. 



w 



o 

-err 



^ 



o 

-©- 



:5pe 



m 



w 



-tr 



o 



o 



ice: 



^ :©: ia 



^m. 



'^Sl 



~C3~ 



o 



:jsz 



I 



I 



I 



i 



54 



H A R MONIC8. 

Scale of C Major.' 

EFFECT. 



i;^. © 


C5 


© 


o 


o 


o 





o 

11 




O- 


-o- 


a 


— e»® — 

— ^© — 




© 


— ^- — H 


-^j — -- 

•7 














H 



I refrain from multiplying examples in this place, as any one may supply them at 
pleasure, and shall therefore only give a passage from Barthelemont which produ- 
ces a pretty effect . Like the preceding examples, it is in the third position . 



HARiMONics. I (^' ^tt ( * r 



EFFECT. 



HARMONICS. 



EFFECT. 



HARMONICS. 



EFFECT. 



o o ° o ^ ° 



tf" — ja p r 



-H*- 



f^^^^^-^^pr^r r I r r r 





o 



^ 



o 

7#- 



_o o 



m 



t- 



H= F 



I 



^ 



' t iiiiiii i i iMj 



± 



-T# [— 1#- 



:P-— e- 



We may perform very well on the Violoncello without using the harmonics :indeed, 
at present, they are much more rarely met v^^ith, than formerly, but as he who desires 
to acquire a thorough knowledge of his instrument should neglect nothing which re- 
lates ty it, I have thought it right to give this article . 

9746 



CHAPTER X. ^^ 

OF DOUBL ESTOPS. 



ARTICLE I. 

OF THIRDS, AND SUCCESSIONS OF THIRDS. 



There is nothing more aj^reeable to the ear, than diatonic saccessions of thirds; 
bat, nnfortnnatfely, they are very difficalt to play on the Violoncello, especially on the 
neck portion of the finger-board . It is only in the first position that two thirds 
can be played in succession without moving the hand, because here the open string 
can be used; but afterwards it is unavoidably requisite to move the hand at each suc- 
ceeding third, which renders the connection and continuity of the sounds extremely 
difficalt . Nevertheless, they can be performed, after considerable practice ; but as 
some time is always required for moving the hand, they can only be done well, 
on this instrument, in a rather slow degree of movement. The second diffi- 
culty is, that as the thirds are nearly aluavs major and minor alternately, and can 
only be played with the first and fourth fingers, it follows that these fingers are 
at one time found at the distance of a tone and a half, and, at another, at that 
of two tones from each other, according to the key and the succession, which rtaj- 
ders it very difficult to stop the thirds perfectly in tune . See the following scales 
in thirds . 



. . i ' 



DOUBLE SCALE 
in C MAJOR, 



1 1 1 1 1 1 " Q -g- -R- ^' 

'^ ^ ^ = M 8 '' S H S ?^ ^ ^ ^ 

^ » T 4 3 4 4 4 2 4 4 4 4 

1 1 ' 



IN D MAJOR . 



" 1 1 1 « i ' c^ Q a -g- "g^ ^ ^— n 



» ' i j» # a 

O VJ 8 ^ - 

"S" -S- '=' T 4^ 24443444 44 

^^ 9 4 4 

01 iioiiij.o-g-^1' 



IN Kb MAJOR. ^b1, ^ S^ g H 8 ^^ ^ ^' fi) ^ '^ =W 

'^ ^'^ ^ 4 i 4 4 4 -^ 4 4 t,' 4 4 2 3 



2 4 



9746 



56 

The minor keys art- finjt^eml prt-cisely in tlje same way, except that where 

the open string; cannot be used , we eiTi])loy the first and fourth fingers, as a- 
bove . We here Jijive the scale of C minor only, more beinjj^ unnecessary,as tht-v 
are all alike . 

,114. 

I 1 1 t 1 1 i, b g> -g-b-g- ^ __ 

BODBLK SCALK /f tV I . , , O j -g 8 ^ " ° I I 

1 '^ "* 



' Sometimes these scales in thirds on the neck are played as in the followinjr 
example, bnt this is not always practicable; for, if the melody demands equality of 
tone, the many open notes oppose it, as they always soiifid louder and more harsh 
than those which are taken by the fingers . As in this method of fingering, the 
npper note is sometiines taken on the lower string, and the un den note on the high- 
er string, I shall indicate the first string by a single stroke _, the secmd by 
two =, the third by three= , and the fourth by four = „.. ' 

-e>- ^ ^ 1 = = 

fe= ^ ^ ^ " g ^t 8 w , ^ , . o I I 

4 4 4 2 ^ 4 3 4 T ^^ -©--???■ "^ 



* 3 



1 



The notes which are not marked by strokes are played in the natural way, 
like the foregoing scales .When the thumb is brought into use , a greater resource 
is open to us, as we can then perform two thirds iti succession without mo\ingthe 
hand . See the following scale in thirds, in G major, on the first two strings, the 
thumb being indicated, as usual, h\ o 



- ^ <^ - 1 I 1 1 



11 G MAJOR , ^K , ^^ ^=i-Ji 

t/ 44 + 4.232332324444 

The next scale b-^iiiiis ^t once with the thumb . It is very easy to perform, and 
produces a good effect . 

^ § » 8 S^ ^-^^ ^ ^ ^ 8 i ^ ^ ^ 1 

"ij 2 3 ~2 3 2 3 ~2 3 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 



SOALK 
in Q MINOR. 

%y 2 3 '-J 3 5i 

974-^ 



The first scale in G, which is jfiveii above, may also be played by usiB;aj the 
thumb at once; but, in this case, we mast commence it on the second and third 
strings . 



~tf '■'""'f- 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 



57 



EXAMPLK 



III the minor mode, this scale is mnch more difficult; for, althouy;h the fin- 
gering is the same, the fingers themselves must be drawn closer together or sepa- 
rated farther from each other, as the minor key reqnires . 



SCALE 
in G MINOR. 



a'.l jb tr l inf. o S 3 " ^ 



1 I 



> 3',' i btr l ilLr. O W a '~3 , j , Ih i. I ,i u 3'_' fi t ri i i ir O S Si -a 



■ Slii r i^.. 



S'.' S t r ii i s 0~8 ^ g 



2 3 2 3 



23 233 23 2 



3 2 3 2 



The following is a kind of passage which is easy of performance, both in as- 
cending and in descending. 

I V, 1, V| 'i Vi \ V, 



SLOWLY. 






< g I g <>- g » I ^^» - f* 8'^ s uiht- ' . r ' I i ^ I 1 



p 



iEL^ 




i 



3 2 3 ^2 3 '2 '3 l2 3 



This scale can likewise be easily played in A major, on the first and second 
strings; and equally well, also, in B flat major. 

3 2 3 2 3 2 So s g L 



A MAJOR 



3 2 3 2 3 2 
p 



3 8 3 2 3 



^ 



52 



B b MAJOR 









3 2 3 2 3 2 



2 h V 

3 



3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 ^3 2 'l V 

These successions of thirds are very difficult , and, besides, not always practica- 
ble in this manner . For instance, when near (lie nut, the first and third fingers 
cannot extend themselves sufficiently to take the third perfectly true, unless the 
performer's hand is particularly large; so that this fingering is only suitable to 
certain persons . 

974.6 



.58 



KXAMPLF ON THK FIRST AND SKCONfJ STRINGS 



i 



S 



I 



Any one who tries this example will be convinced that it is impossible to play 
the sefdiul chord, A and C, perfectly in tune, with the first and third finj^ers; unless , 
as before ohservLMl, he has an unusually large hand . These thirds on the. neck must 
therefore be taken with the first and fourth fini!;ers,or ■with the thumb and second fui- 
ger,on the second and third strings . These two methods I have indicated in the pre- 
ceding examples, and have only gi\en the last example because I have met with per- 
sons who, finding that successions of thirds are more easily played by using the thumb, 
have employed this method from one end of the neck to the other, little regarding pa- 
rity of intonation, which however is by no means a matter of indifference. 

I shall perhaps exhibit some very difficult things, but shall carefully avoid such 
as are impracticable ( although these are occasionally to be met with); for whatever lies 
awkward for the hand, must always be badly performed, even by the most skilful. 

Enough, then, on the sirbject of thirds, since they are fingered alike in all the keys . 



ARTICLE II. 

THIRDS AND SECONDS. 



We shall now present some successions of thirds and seconds, which are frequently 
employed in passages, and are performed with the thumb and second finger. 



K X A M P L E . 



P 



9 <i 

-:§: — Q©- 



g>o 



9 



2 2 2 2 2 

SUCCESSION OF THIRDS AND SECONDS 

Vi V,— , 



X H iT' ^'-^t ^'-?i '\1 n ^i~j '^r-^ ' 

in- D MAJOR. ^V 7 ! ' ^ ' ^ ^ ' T ' ^ F ' ' ^ ^ M ' T~ I M ^ 
•J 2 2 2 2 ,' J S 2- 2 2 2' :i 



3 2- 

Here, the thumb and second finger descend alterna:tely . In descending with the 
thumb, the interval of the second is formed, and by bringing the second finger 
nearer to it, we produce that of the third . Great attention must be paid to pu- 
rity of intonation . 

9746 



59 

The following is the same passage in the minor mode, with precisely the same 
fingenug.We have only to observe the reciprocal distance of the fingers, which varies 
on account of the minor key. 



EXAMPLE 0, 

in D MINOR . W 



i I K(^ ffi kQ i^ ^iV^ iKj \ K ^h^ -- 



' ]^f^ i \ (. < 



3 2- 



I 



THE SAME SUCCESSION IN A RATHER MORE COMPLICATED FORM . 



I 



Q:i--i — ^ — 



^S 



'^d^^^M 



^m 



2 1 2- 



^^ 



2 1 2 



fe^ 



CT 



f 



^ 



P 



^ii i iS.^ S 



T ^ — C L ^ 



2 'l 



V^2 '2 



TTT 



ARTICLE III. 

SUCCESSION OF THIRDS, SECONDS AND SIXTHS. 



EXAMPLE 
til D MAJOR. 



P 






vi i 






J^ ^li 



2—^ 3 

3' W 



g^ -—^ l-i^' l-Lli lJj-I l I ' i [ r ' r r r 



*| 2, *l 2| 



^, 0| 0| -^1 ^1 1| ^1 ^1 2| "J ^1 4| 3| 4| 

j'^^'i; 'i.i:'i:ii:mi.i ■ 

I have written these chords in the key of D major, which being one of the most 

sonorous vrill facilitate parity of intonation . After having well practised theminthis 

key, it will be easy to repeat the same succession in others, as the fingering is always similar. 

9746 



60 



ARTICLE IV. 

SUCCESSION OF THIRDS AND SiXTHS. 

Successions of thirds and .sixths are also used ; whifh (^rodiue -a ^ery ^ood ef- 
fect and are easily performed.. 



i= 



KXAMPLK Qtt 

,1 G MAJOR. '7 



^ 



TT 



I 4- 



f 



I 4~ 



1 4 1, 4~~l ^ 



4 12 I4 



I4 |o 14, 3 4 I2 '4 I2 4 U l4 T 3 f 



— )- 



I * L j t 



'-1 



^ 



:# V i# 






i» ,g 



i 



W 2 I4- Iq l4 I2 I4 



0-^ 



MZMi 



^■tG 



^ 



4 T2 I4 '2 '41 3 3 



2 I4 12 



4 14 I3 3 



■ 



In the preceding;, as \vell as in the followin}!; example, a third and a sixth can 
be taken without uio\iiig" the hand. The stroke drawn over two succeeding chords in- 
dicates the same position of tbt» hand . 



KXAMPLE 
in G MINOR. 



s 






i 



4 i '4 l;j 



o\, y^j '^ ^1 1 '1 '\ ' ^r7'i ^ 


1 4 


1 2 3j 1 4 2 1 2 


-^tt 




4 3 


4 ^ 3 3 4 ^ - - :^ 


-^-if 



It may perhaps be thnujrht somewhat complicated, that I have marked the E flat, 
at'^' in the second bar, to be taken with the third finji;er . I admit that it does appear 
to deviate a little from the general rule; but it prevents the fourth finger skijiping for 
the next note, which lies a semitone higher on the second string . H'i\ve\er,it uoiild 
not be a fault to take this E flat with the fourth finu'er, as it is nimked at 4 ■ in 
the following example . 



E X A vi P L K . 



m 



w=^ 






14 



l3 



.974 fi 



61 

This I leH\f ti) t\\'- jml^^iiieiit (if prnf,'>M,r-- : but I 'will now present a case wht-re 
:t is indis^ensHl)lt t(i fina;er acc'iirdiiijf tc. the first me-thud : this is the case ff the 
diminisherl .third, not as a chord, but diat--inically . 



EXAMPLE. 



f - r "If 






The distance from C shafp to E flat is called a diminished third. B3' trying it in 
doable stops, we shall see if we are not compelled tn finjjer in this manner. 



K X A M P L.E 



w^^ 






i 



m 



I - 1 9 



# # 



:y."i ' ^ 



* — *^ 



# # 



-ry- 



t^ 



•J 2 



I 2 1 3 



_^ 2 I i , 2 I .-i 4 -#^ ' * 

O (1 



This article belonjrs rather to the sixth than to the third, bnt I have been 
constrained to make these remarks . The same fiiiy;erinji; will recur ajfain in the 
scales with minor sixths . 

Having sufficiently treated of third- md seconds, we now pass on to the con- 
sideration of the fourth . 



A R T I C L E V. 

OF THE FOURTH. 

The fourth is used as a passiiitr double stop, but rarely in successions, because these 
are so harsh . They are only snfferable when accompanied, and then they produce a good 
effect . Tn general, however, the fourth is but little used as a double stup. 

I here present a short succession , jast to give an idea of it; but it will be discovered 
that, apart from the accompaniment, the fourths have nothing agreeable in them, 

SLOWLY. 




1 I 0, 2 



4- 



21 2| _], 



± 



* 



22: 



I 



» - , 



f 



'^ 



i 



3^=^ 



-^-r 



?^ 



-p— 



I carefully refrain from giving scales in fourths, as well as in fifths and sevenths; 
indeed, those who think proper to practise them, will onlv succeed in blunting and 
corrupting their sense of hearing. 



t»7+fi 



«^ 



i^RTICLE VI 

OF THE Fl RTH . 



The perfect fifth beiiiji; the tuning of th^ Violoncello, or ( to speak more cor- 
rectly), the fonr strings of the Violoncello being tuned by fifths; it follows that, 
whenever a finger is placed on two strings at once, in a direction parallel to the 
nnt,afifth is produced . In like manner, the thumb placed on two strings pro- 
duces a fifth; in which case it may be said to form a moveable nut . 



ARTICLE VII. 

OF THE FALSE FIFTH. 



FALSE FIFTH. 



m 



^^ 



The chord of the false fifth is always taken with the second and third fingers 
crossed over, as in the above example-, and it is generally resolved by the major or 
minor third, as will be seen in the exara]>!es following. 

FALSE FIFTH RESOLVED BY THE MAJOR THIRD. 



l^t Striiiff. 
2 ] 2 1 2'.' String. 



1st p„sitii>n. 



M 



*=: 



^tar 



I o 



S 



33: 



i 



I 



tt gisoi g ' nror^n^ 



iS: 



s 



:^ss: 



t^ 



^E 



3484 3 434 3434 3 

2<< String-. 3 d string. 

FALSE FIFTH RESOLVED BY THE MINOR THIRD. 



2>.' PdMti.m , 



2 



m 



-p^ 



tss: 



^ 



1^2: 



32: 



l•^t 'Pi.silinn. 



£ 



^i' 



S: 



:S: 



| i? o l ^^'^ I ftp : 



o 1 1 ;_^ I Q' jjz 



*5=L 



:3a: 



Thus it appears that the same fingers are always used both in the major and 
in the minor mode . ■ " 

97*6 . , 



A BRIEF REVIEW OP SOME FALSE FIFTHS RESOLVED BY THE THIRD 



€3 



The accompaniment has been inserted to render the progressioD less harsh 
anil monotonoas . 




i 



J. 



^ 



A 



i 



=F^ 



^ 



^ 



E 



W^ 



f 



331 



i=Z2 



ZSL 



33: 




J L J }^ . IhJ. g 



i 



^s 



^^1 



h'^f^ 'bgf5 ^^ 



^ 



^^ 



3ps 



^ 



5^ 



^ 



i 



^g 



^^3 



J .J I ^ 



=? 



t=2t 




^ 



i 



:7z: 



^ F^= 



^ 



^ 



22 



"f 



aJ 4i^T ^ ^ 



"^5 — ^ 



^ 



-^ '^ I ^j d i J 



^ 



Having already stated that the false fifth is taken with the second and third 
firia,vrs, I have deemed it unnecessary to mark the fiugeriny; in this place. In short, 
it will be seen from this review, that ail false fifths mnst be taken with the fin 
;rers aboved-nained , and it has therefore appeared to me useless to give e\ery such 
fifth within the compass of the neck, as it would be only a repetition of the same 
thing . It is true, there are some exceptions to this rule , bat they are extremely 
rare :' ,the following is an instance of one , where a melody occurs below a sus- 
tained part . 



E X A M RI. K 



T '' r^TT* TfT TTJ t ',t^^ ' k'gn: 






3tjtz: 



il- 2 



^ 



f 



tai 



-r-tr 



^m 



974(5 



f,- f 



It is evident that the finj^iring in this example is only employed to enable thf 
sustained notes to be continued in the manner indicated; since we deviate in souie 
d«)5fee from the rule for finjrering , in playing G, F sharp, and G,with the same 
finger, as here marked in the third and seventh bars At the end of the ex- 
er,cise, however, the false fifth is again taken with the second and third fingers. 
Yet, if the passage were written note against note, as it stands below, and "■nj 
one should think proper to take all the false fifths with the second and third fin- 
gers , as I here mark them, it would neither be an error nor a bad method of 
fingering to do so . 

1- 



' • I I 



1| *, 1, 2 



^W 



i 



I 



is ^ u 



'4 '2 Ig I4 '4 I3 '4 13 

But it must be admitted that the first method of fingering is indispensable for 
the sustained notes ; and that it is also very advantageous in the case of a rapid 

si' 

passage of the following kind . 



f dJ dd^^' ' ££^W ££^ B 



4 3 13 41 3+ 42 2242 4 2 
* ^ 1 ^ 4134 42 824243 



ARTICLE VIII. 

OF THE SUPERFLUOUS FOURTH, OR TRITONE. 



w 



I 



or 



w 



3 



This chord, as we here see, is taken in two ways, the choice depending on what 
fiillows.it: for example, it is taken with the first and second fingers in such a pas- 
sage as the following : 



^ Tinned, hy th.- French, i '' biltterie',' nrhiih sigTiifie 



mu^ic^l *.ense',. i species t'f itriu'^f^i" . j^p. 



m \i 



f).5 



i 



s 



^ — t 



^ 



21 



l| 



f 



-+-5- 



i 



I I 2 : 41 41 

While, on the contrary, in one like th>' next, it is taken with the third aud fourth finjrers 



VI 



fe 



3s: 



4; 

ZStL 



1^ 



jOI 



:iS= 



4 

2i: 



^ 



i 



The above two examples have been HTitten in the major mode, but the fing;ering; 
is precisely the same in the minor . 

• o 4 "^1 ^ 



(in Kb minor) VP ' P 



DSI 



fi,. Kb MINOR) (! ^ '^' ^V ' 



-c 



±i 



I 



52Z 



:|^ 



ns 



4 3 



4 



i 



The two ways of fingering this chord are applicable to all Jfeys and to all parts 
of the neck , 



D MAJOR . 



F MINOR 



G MAJOR. 



eb MINOR, 



i 



1 



tl ^ o 



4 
I 



e-Ab ^ e? 



S 



P 



.'1 



^^ 



1 



3^ 



53Z 



3Z 



i 



^ 



IJCZ? 



41 

4 

-2l 



i 



3S: 



:I=S 



3 3 ij 



tt 



22: 



=^ 



40^ 



:^ 



I 



I 



I 



i 



These examples might be repealed on everv p<iiiit of the neck-portion of the 
finger-board, hut there would be no change in the fingering. 

The three superfluous fourths which can be made by the use of the open strinirs 
VAW onlv be re.sidved in the major mode . 



974.6 



v/> 



ARTICLE IX 

OF THE DIFFERENCE IN THE MANNER OF FINGERING THE SUPERFLU- 
OUS FOURTH AND THE FALSE FIFTH. 



There are some persons who by their mamifr of fingering, confound the false fifth 
with the strperfliioiis fourth, because both these chords embrace a compass of three 
whole tones, and who take both in the same way, by placing one finger (ni an upptr 
string, and crossing over the next on the string immediately below. 



2 



KXAMPLE 

,f the Falsa Fifth 



2 

55. 



I 



"We here observe that, in placing the second finger on the first string, and cross- 
ing over the third on the second string, the false fifth is prodirri^. 

In the following example we perceive that, in placing the first finger on tli- (ir-t 
string, and crossing over the second i\'>liiil, is the next ffnger) on tlie second string, 
the superfluous fourth is produced . 



EXAM PL K 

I'f the Superfludus Fourth. 



1 



I 



There is then, certainly, a great resemblance in the fingering of these two chords; 
hut with the slightest practice on the Violoncello, we shall ne\er confound it, as the 
results are totally different . Thus, the false fifth is resolved by the third, as in 
the next example . 



F^l— Fifth 



EXAMPLE 



m 



o 



Third, 



And if we were to take this chord with the first and second fingers, like that 
nl the superfluous fourth, the above-named third would be no longer under the hand, 
u hich would be very awlnvard . 

971-6 



N'.iw ii[)ser\e the results of the fal>'- fit t h .hejriiiiin^ nn tht- same I) hs ht-tur^ 



67 



w 



jl J2. S^ t\ *'' ■'''■ t! 



i=Jfs= 



-a «!r 



=JP^ 



This Uiititrally leads us into the key tif A. 

Next nbserve the results of the superf limus fourth, still ((nnuu-iK iiijj; on 
the same D . 



m 






^^ 



2 ; 



i 1'^ CI 



) 2 



4 4 



This naturally leads us iiitu E flat The folliiwinji; is the seciuul way of 

taking this chord . 

o_ A ^^ -zi ^-^ A. ^-^ 



® 



i 



ss: 



For the sujjerfluons fourth can be taken in two wa^s, but the false fittliiuone 
way only , as before stated . 

Here follows an example of two superfluous fourths and a false 111 t h in th.- .saim- 
position , fing;ered in the manner that I ha\e prescribt-d . 



SHpprfIii'>U'' fniirth , 
1 

5-es 


FalsH fifth. 
2 


Su, 


i-rflit'.iis f urth. 
3 


-4^. -'^=' 


*M= 




J^ 













2 S 4 

These three chords, if played as they here stand, sound extremely harsh; but if 
we resolve them, that is, if after the superfluous f(Hirth we jri\(' the sixth, and alter 
thi- false fifth, the third, thev then become ay;reeable . Here is an exarnple of this; 
III which, let it be tibserved, the same position mast be maintained thmujrhout . 



* 



1 

1^ 



2; 

a. 



ISS 



^ 









% 



1 3443 

This '"an be played in the same position both in the major and in tht- niiimr nnMlf, 
'f which I shall j^i\e some short examples, and which will show, at the same time, th.ii 
11. my thiiiif^ fan be done without displacing the hand . 



974-fi 



(^H 



III the two fotldwiiiji; examples we always remain in the second position 



2, 2 



3 +1 + 



EXAMPLK 



ill the MAJOR. 



(^. ^J '^ n ^^ 






U'j [| v'] I ft ^^ tt Q I tt '^ 



13 4 4 3 2; 3 1, 



1 



^^ 



^ 



S 



»2S 



i 



#2i 



^5* 6^ 



^ 



2, 2 



4| 4, 4, 3 4, 



A A i-#i i i i«2 i 



KXAMPLK 



ill the MINOR . 



w 



321 



=*tq 



"^^ '^'l I tt Q gn 



4 4 2 2 I 



I 



w 



^ 



^ 



3 



-iSi- 



^ 



1 



The next is a more extended example, in the same position from the be- 
ginning to the end . 

3 *| *, *, 2 



^ 



1 1 ^ A A ItA A- A A^A 



\\<) r ^ tt '^ 



t^) ^ '^) I o p=^ 



d 4 2 1 3 4 4 3 2 1 T 



'g V ' ( I ' . 1 J 



^ 



^ 



^ 



^^ 



±=!t=Z2 



n n 



mm. 



1 jy 



35 



4 



3, 4| 3| 3 



122: 



i^t^ 



«^ — o- 



t^A 



i 



?^^ 



S=S5 



^^^ 



-Sr 



3 4 



^ 



I 



-^ ^ J" « J -^ ft J" -^^-^ 



W^ 



Chromatic successions of false fifths and superfluous fourths are often met 
with . Here is one of them . 



9746 



6'9 






:t= 



t> 



t{# <P 



^ 



r^r Mf^jj^r ^^rrrr '^clrj' '«'^^ 



^ 



s 



i 



i 



I*— T*- 



m m * M. 



•0—0- 



^ 



# * # > 







-v^ 



^ 



i 



^^j 'J i ro 



^ 



^ 



¥ 



* — #1 



^ C C (^ C IT f 



n'TT^^nn'^rr 



^ 



s 



^¥=^ 



W^ 







-^t 



It is chiefly in this harmonic progression that the extension of the foarth fin- 
ger occurs . Here follows an example . 



P 



2 



2 2 4-2 

J ; ^ 



1— 



:^=± 



2, 3l 2 



xy^^u . 



14 U I4 



2, 3 



^id^ 



*=: 



C iC c ' 'crr F 



r*s^ 



P 



^ - I I I , ^1 ^ .^1 ^ 1 "1 — I . ^ ^ 1 M ^1 I ^ 1 ^ 1 



I have written this passage note against note, for the purpose of more clearly 
displaying the fingering. In general it is written in tr (> lii.«ing manner. 



r:\ 



i 



:n= 



-J^l^U- 



^^ 



4U 



bt^ 



i^^ 



*=: 



t=: 



1&=* 



-< » J ^0 M ^ ^^ 



M 



J J J J 



i 



i 



i 



^^ 



ffl Y Trr 




s 



?r>^ 



In this passage, the extension of the foarth finger is used for the interval of 
the second, which cannot be played in any other way. The false fifth is taken, as 
it ought to be, with the second and third fingers; and the superfluous fourth also, 
properly, v^ith the first and second fni^jers . Thus, the principles of fingering are so 
naturally found in this passage, that, althontrh somewhat complicated in itself, I 
think it would be difficult to perform it otherwise; and here I consider enough has 
been said on the fingering of these two chords . 



9746 



V) 



ARTICLE X . 

OF THE SIXTHAt^D SUCCESSIONS OF SIXTHS . 



As sixths are easily |)l,(yf(l «n the Violoncello, particularly in major keys, and as they 
liso produce a jt!;ood effect, I think it desirable to etilHrj^e a little on this article. 

In the first position , three sixths in succession may be played without shifting; the hand. 



K X A M P L K 



^ 



2 



4 



3 



1 



^^ T 



I 



But if we would finger sixths rejjjnlarly, only two in succession should be taken in 
the same position ; because in order to preserve reg;nlarity in the fing;ering;, it is often 
necessary to avoid using the open strings . Of thi,s we may be convinced by the ex- 
amples following, and still, more so by practice. 

We will now proceed to the donljle scale in sixths, in the key of C major. 

4 , . 9 3 i ^ 



2| *1 



— _- ij 

K X A M P L K . - ^' . I' V is cmg rr:! g j ^"^ f 



g 4 ■* Q 



■4 "' S lnMK. - - ^ gJ -^:<^PitTi ng. - 



f . striim. r. 




-in^r^ 






I a 1 



^=2 



^=C 



I 



K X A M P L E . 



2'.' Sir 



Different scales in the same key of C 



m 



3;' s"'"'w- r4 



32S 



w 



"■<■ CN 



V. sti iiig. 



4 3 



^ 



2i'slri i [n. 



rj 3'? S lrh iyi^ 



3 



^i? 



S(.liN>;. 



■ifPsu 



mgv 



4 



2 ^ 

I st string-. _£> -'q- 



e'! B lr i i m ^ 



i 



-er ^ 



^=c: 



I 



:3'.^ s tring. g =^ 



t.> 



y \ A M y L K 



-ail 



: ^ '' H hinu. 



¥?Sfr 



Similarly in descending 





■A 


2 


3 


2 


4 


3 


4 


2 


4 


2 


2'.' Striiii;. 


4 


3 


4 


2 




p 


O 










O 






1^, 




/(»V 




>- 


O 




/f 




., 
C 








O 


r« 






(<£'. ,,,l ,,, - 


Ik.' 










rt) 








CJ 


Os 














C" 


{> 




VL' 












^ 


^n 




r 












•/ 


2 


1 


2 


1 


3 


1 


2 


1 


2 


1 




3 


1 


2 


1 





(.1 :3 I 2'.' string", jft. 



' g- q 3 ' ! auing. ^, - > 



^5^ 

i 



a= 



^ 



-a 4 string;. 



4'^Ht i- ni;; -7 



'1 7 I- <i 



1 



-5^ 
I 



EXAMPLE 



EXAMPLK. 



The minor scales are rnach more difficult 
DOUBLE SCALE, in C MINOR. 



7/ 




4.'? String, igl- C^ J "^ 



m 



Different scales in C minor . 

2 4. 2 3 



m 



3\ ' ^ Stri i m ; — n — S 



4*? string-. 



l 



BlflllH'. 



-CT 



f^ 



3^? Sfa 



mgr 



^ 



2''. ' ' tjLi ' lii^^. gv 



^ I':*^ string. S^ 



3 4 



^^ 



3 * 



o a * : ? * scfi i iu. r :~ — ^ ' 



as: 



4'." acf iiig. 



i 



:s5 



, 2 

_2l 



3 

■©T 



L 2 ^ 



« = : 



I 



C.^' e t i' lm 



b (; a--.^^ s fa i uy. I 



w^ 



3 



«; 



EXAMPLE . 



P 



& 



3'' ' * St r iiig 



Similarly in descending 



3 L 2 



3: 



3 

-<er 



«=c: 



_Ci 



^^^ 



2".^ String. -^ 



S tHn ^r 



2 I 2".d String, -g>- h p . 



2 : 1 2 1 
3 3 8 



^ 



i 



^ 



f Z=Z2=p3 



S3IIp^5Si^ 



6 t ry 



mjv 



g ^-<5 4 rp G tiiuft - . r^ 



| ; 4^"aUmB rz2 5t 

2 1 



-6'- 
1 



I 



SHORT EXERCISE IN ASCENDING AND DESCENDING, 
intended to facilitate the performance of sixths. 

4 2, 4 3 * = 4 2 4 „ ^ 3 4, 3 i 



gjtgU ' illti. 



' 3 I 3 



■ 4^t s tfing T^ 



w 



fwX 



atilnn. 



i 



3^'B t iini-. »- 



»»i 



Sti>iiig 



4*.'' String. 



4| 21 4| 3| +34 



i;^ 2T 2 



21 3 1 3 
3 2 3 



1 






I 



±* 



2 T 2 1 (3 |l |3 II I2 |1 12 '1 
4 



P 



i 



2 '1 '2 II 



^- 1 



2 1 2 

2 t 



e"auii^ 



I 



^ ^ ^ 



3'^ S tii]i^, 



2 



1 1 



i 



1 



<gi 



f L«r I fr r 



S*"." Striny. 



Zd 



41^!» Strinir. 
I 

9746 



0^0 



T^ 



J 



7ii 



IN C MINOR 



^ 



W 



I , a V K fr i nL .. 
^ ' j fh ... ■ 



4l 



^ 



4'!' S(riii<^ J 



,1.1 . ■^ 

2'.' s U ' iiiK -y 



J.')''.'' ai n ii ;.t) -»— t-*^ 



^ 



-€r- 



i 



i**«tT 



««*'-StT 



P 



r- ^ r^r;^ 



i 



^[|la.]?^ip(«i. '^^ 



I 



2'.'striMif., 



2 4 2| 2'."striiii 

I' I Is / 



a 



% 



i±^t 



^ 



m 



tie 



3';"Striny. 



m 



2 4 4 



I 



1 



P 



^ Tsdi i iK. 



TTfrf 



After having thoroughly practised the examples in C, we should pass on to D, when 
it will be seen that, although the key is changeil,the fingering remains precisely the same. 



DOUBLK SCALE 

in SIXTHS 
ill D MAJOR. 






:^ f ^ & ^■' .S tnutt-.-^-^ ^24^ 

— CT 0| n ^ ~ .J — ^ c\ Q 



Another, 



ms. 



4t'.'s'ii,i^-. d 



2 1 



g .T.'mii ii ^ 



C^: 



C» -g 2"."si rTV 



Q-e 



1 3' 
4 



w 



.'i'V'shimf. 



4'yst [' i ii 



i 4 



P? 



2'.'s ( iiMl;, — ^ 



4 2 ^ l-^Stn,„-..^S:L 



3 .^ B f i ili^. 



3; 



AS 



^ 



ij I[ -2H^ SInnK. Q -e Cutiimj. ^ 
3 — 3"lJ t Li ii K. 1 ^- 




I 2 



5 



-er 



35 



iv 4 a 



3: 



1 



i 



=c 



3: 



3 



e'V'sui 



^ 



-«■ 



K. SAMPLE 



3 


2 


s 

3 


imilai 

2 

r ^ 


■ly in 

4 

r *^ 


descending - 

.i * 2 


4 


2 


4 


'i 


x ♦'It ^ 


c 


.-> 








''^ o 




c^ 


^ 


1 ('•»^ • 


yT 1+ 






C 


r\ 








1 




ri i<y. 


m ** 










.c 


(jU — -, 


e 


5 ^ ^^—^^ — 


y 


1 


2 


1 


;■! 


I 


^^|-"f 


2 


1 


3 


— & ' 

I 



M^ 



i'} string. g> 



155 



I'-.t Strinir.Si. ^ 2'.lStrin>r. X 2 4 .:) 



^5r-ncv 



1 



' TFsu - JMu. e - 



3i: 



3? s ti - 



j| 3 ■ Sdi i .n r 



s=^ 



8 ? ii tr i ny. — Q- 



S=^: 



w^ 



f 



32: 



1 '^ 2 



II 3 



MINOR 

in ascending. 



m 



L 3''.''3l i iMH T 



4^ Stririjr-. 



t; a. Slri i u. O 



3^ S (riji., 



2^ I-.t,,,,,^^^ 



■jtx^ Oj e". S lri r iij 



1| 21 
4 2 



2 4. 2 



t;^ -g e? B h ii i^. Q 



*= 



2' ■'''? « "i">^- V 



4^ A tf:i # 

: 1 ^-i !> -"ct- 



»P 



mm- 



P.'titli rl ii 



*5 



S 



•^ 



i 



- ^"■'^ S l l iiiu. 



TT 



2 
9746 



a fi^ 1 



r.^i 



M r soft 
in (lesceiidiuj^ ." 



-^L 



m 



_! 4 



-er 



iin 



f^f^ 



w 



2'.'strin<. 



4 g l>-.t String. J^ };^ 2,1 s,^;,^ 3 2 4 






I 



'^^ g> 3'A 



^ 



2". ' '3lrum : 



SLfin ' .!. ^ 



3. Sl i i ri ii. 



ji titvliuf. O — *^ 



=^ 



N 4'.^BH ' lii4 ' . g 



SHORT EXERCISE IN ASCENDING AND DESCENDING. 



MAJOR 



^ 



4 2 4: 



3':° S ti ' intr. 



to 4t!i String-. # 



I 



a^' S tTin<. 



2, 



a^jGhi i i^. 



2i 



r.' String. 



^^ 



g".'' String. 



4 

fc^A g 4 3 



'2 1 ' '1 ~~r 






:££ 



^ 






S: 



4 



# I * 



ss: 



^ 



^P?r^ 



?^ 



P 



t 



(g):^ I 1^ "*^ 



1 



H ^ nrvu^ 



T^ 



The same in 

the MINOR . 



4 
-2L 



3 

21 



1 



1 



4 2 • ^ P.tStrinjf.Jl, 

* 9 r ^ * 






2".'suii]a. -y 



1 



^ 



IJlJillililll, 



S::i^s^^^^£ ^^^j, !^ 



fiffffiTfiffFf 

ll I2 I I 12 2 '1 ' I2 



% 



^^ 



P 



/• ttli^7^2.< 



;'■' String. 



21 41 2 3 



V> \^ \ ~ 4n'Strinir. o f T f V- ^ 



r^=^ 



=ei 



=i? 



Stiiil^. 



1 2 1 



I, 

These scales tn sixths are fingered in the same manner in all the oth^-r keys: so 
that any one who can play them wel! in C and U, major and minor, will easily ac- 
complish the rest . I shall, however, give the scales of E flat and F major, vhich 
will at once show that the process of fingering is always the same. 



9746 



'»" Thf tWiit-rt'ncti between the minor aiui the major is similar to that in the pre- 
reeilillj;; examples, . 



II.. Ill, k- SCALK 
in K^ MAJOR . 



DdUbli- SCALE 
in F MAJOR . 



^^^^^'- 



— f^ 



ff-sn, , .,. . ,^ a ^ "^ 



*is 



8 .'Strintf . 



I 3 



cri 



3 4' 

1^.' String-. jii.'S: 



Vstring^^^^^^ 
l' 3 if 






55 



«= 



1=2 



^ 



i 



2 I 2 



4 3 



Ml 8'^G t iini f . 
^-^ b 3'-* SI r ing. 



3 * I ^t string-. A. Q S ±± 

^ ^ ^ Q ^ - '^^73--d: 



2 4 



e'J'* B (r ii ii< r 



^=52 






^ 2 » 

2 i 4r -SV 



2 1 



2W 3 



Q O i ^ 

i^^ 



ty 



2=i 



3^1 



J 2 



I 2 



1 



It will doubtless have been remarked that, in recommencing the scale for th« se- 
cond octaTe, I change the fingering: for example, in D. 



4 



D. 



Eb. 



End of the 
l^* Scale. 

Kml of the- 
I':* Scale. 

Eiiil of the 
1^.' S<;al,. . 



^ 



i=^ 



2 



4- 



.f fhi- 2'iJsi.i.lr. ft" 



-« 



^ 



Bej^inninfif 



of the 2n**SralL'.z£]: 



S 



P 



Beg-inniiti^ Q 

of the 21.'' S,.;.Ih W 



The sixth which completes the n(tH\e "f the first scale, afterwards becomes 
the first sixth of the second scale, as we_here see, and it is then taken with dif- 
ferent fingers, as indicated in the above <s^amples. 

It is very essential to observe this, hi-cai(se,in order to preser\e regtilarity, the 
first sixth of these scales should he always taken with the first and second fin- 
gers, whether lying high or low. 

K X A M P I. K . 



D. 



E b. 



F. 



1".' Sixth 


..f the 


!•:' Sfale. 


r.' Sixth 


of the 


I--.' Se^l,,. 


r> Sixth 


of the 


11' Sc...,Ie. 



^ 



M 



m 



M 



^ 



22= 



r' Sixth 

of the 

2'I'' Seale. 

11* Sixth 
of the 



r.*^ Sixth 

of the 
2'!'* Scale. 



m 



tt 



ZSL 



d^ 



33 



The like repetition must be made in- all the keys; the reason of which is. that 

the scale has only seven notes, the eighth being obtained by additii:; the octase; ami 

H> We ascend these scales in sixths by playing two sixths in earli positmrt of the 

9746 



75 

hmnl.the entire scale iucludinjij its octave is performed by the haud makinj^ four 
uiiiNtinents . JBut the double scale, terminated by the doable octave,. comprises only 

-fifteen notes; from whence it follows, that we could not finger it regnlarl}^ two 

sixths in each position; consequently, ww are obliged to change the fingers in com- 
mencing the second scale on the octave of the first, fas seen in the preceding exam- 
ples,) in order that both may be performed alike . 

Let OS now see how it could be fingered, if the first sixth of the secohd scale were 
not repeated, as it has been above . 



K X A M P L F. 
ill D MA J O R 



S 



3r'' gt vi ii g ' . ' 



t'."BUiu^. 



g^^ SUinx, - 



_3 4 



9'? auiiiy. 



S 



^ 



I 1 ^ 31 2| 4 3 



4. 2 3 2' 



: ^7 2nd string. ^ Y 



12 12 



The ascent from the last sixth of the first scale to the first sixth of the second 
is then made, as it were, by the same fingers; as here shown . 



i 



^ 



III this manner, the scales in sixths are rendered very regular, and as easy as possible. 
The same process must be repeated in every key, on the same degrees . 

To make this the more evident , I here give a fev\^ double stops before the first 
sixth of the second scale; first with the repetition of this sixth, as I gave it at the 
(xlmmencement of these remarks, and afterwards in regular succession, as in the pre- 
ceding example . 

ExAMPLK with the repetition of the first sixth of the second scale . To be played 
on the first and second strings . . 



D MAJ 



OR. ^ \^ ' J 

tr 3i 



^ J ^ ^J j ^J f -^ ^ e[ ^ ^ 



S r| ' |T [2 li, Is li 



ExAMPLF. without the repetition of the sixth . To be played, as before, on the first 
and second strings. 



tf^ f\ 4| ^1 |T [2 ll I3 ll 






T2 1 2 



^ 



1 I 



The same thing should be done in all keys, when these cases occur . 

9746 



7H 



KXAMPI.E in E MAJOR 

' ith the repfetitioiiof thesixtli, 



EXAMPLE in the same Kej- 
without the repetition. 



M 



m 



ii > 



I 



M 



w 



In F MAJOR 

with the repetition. 



In F MAJOR 



without the repetition . 



i 






1 



* 



iiHiiiil 



>\ 2' 



i ] ' r ^ c c 



^g 



T/ 4] 4n i\ 



hi 



1^2 12 2 11 

, 3 2 3 2 ^->,, ,1 



I 



12 1 2 2 2 



H 



?F 



o 2 a 

9*23 ^ 



£ 



E 



2 i ^^--2 2 



t 



1 (2^ T 2 1 2 2 i ^l 



I 



I would willingly have avoided so much" taiittilogj, but I desired to be thbroHg;hly 
uoderstood ; and, besides, these scales are excellent for practice. Enough, then, for 
the perfect comprehension of sixths , and the manner of playing them in succession. 
Wei will now pass on to other chords which are alternately combined with them, 
such as fifths and sevenths. 



EXAMPLE 
IN C. 

1 



i 



ARTICLE XI. 

SUCCESSION OF SIXTHS AND FIFTHS. 

4 2 






f r: I If ' T ' ^^ 



^ 



^ 



4 2 



^E^ 



2] 4 1 



I 4 2 



w y 



r=="r=^ 



% ' ■! '5 



r 



^ 



This method of fingering is so simple, that I consider it unnecessary to repeat it in 
ither keys . We will now proceed to sixths combined with sevenths . 

9746 



ARTICLE XII. 

SliCCESSION OF SIXTHS AND SEVENTHS. 



I 4- 



I 



il 



4 

-5i 



3 
Sixth. 



1 

Sf^enth. 



G MAJOR, 



i' i j i yi|v^r' ' i^:»^r'^ir ' i^^_^ijjfi i^ 



-/ > — »-T ^ — i^— -'''^^ ytt-^ — — F-tr- f ^ -*-d— d- 



t f 



I 



6 MAJOR 



Rather more 

complicated . 






^ 






1 





Besides the successions of sevenths atjd sixths just given, there are also succes- 
sions of sevenths and thirds; but these retfinre much practice, as the hand is obliged 
to skip from one chord to another . 



EXAMPLl 

n S^ HAJ 



tJ 1 ^ il 4I ij 4.1 i] 4I ^ 4. r^——0 



^ 



Il 41 li 41 1| 4 | 1) 1 21 I I 4| Il 4. 



i 



f -#L 2 f 4 T 4 T 



1 21 1, 0, 



I 



W 



w 



1 " 



2 



ARTICLE XIII. 

OF THE DIMINISHED SEVENTH. 

The diminished seventh is played with the first and third fingers . 

2 



1. 3 



^ 



2 

Fifth. 



Diminished ScTenth. 

Here follow some in succession , 

2I 3i 2j 31 2| 






1 



9746 



78 



ARTICLE XI\^. 

RECAPITULATION OF THE D I FFERENT 'SUCCESSIONS OF CHORDS 
.ALREADY GIVEN, AND WHICH I CONSIDER GOOD FOR PRACTICE. 



1| ll 2t-^ 






^ 



i 



3 1 2y 



i- 



# I 



01 



*uS. ^ 






' (g^-i> gv-^^' i ,^1r!j^3 



Oi L 



4L 



I 



-J I jj J ^ 'J'JT'^/^^iJ 



» 



Rg i -a'TT" ^^ 



55= 



^^F 



-rH=- 






4 2 



ll 4. li 4 



P 



* J I JJTJ JT 






1 4 I' 4 t 21 ll 2 



^ 



4 1 '4 *^ 4 f 4 -J. J -a ' 



' ' " '^ 11 

li 4| I 4 4| 8. 2. 1 I I. ll 



i 



II 4i 0. 21 Ii 41 11 4- 



1^ 



1 4 



^1 I * f I 



-+- 



^^ 



TKZJt 



3 '4 2 



ft * " 



^ 



:f 2 f * ' * 



0! Ii 1| 1 



-^ -^ ^ 



2 ^^ 



i: 



[21! 4.1 ' 14 i« ll 4.1 



2 



2 4 4 14 



p 



i!=|t 



# 



ll 2I 3 



t^is — ^ * — sr 



^ ^ 



=1 



11 I 



S 



1 2 4 



1 L I 



g-ily 



r. " " r^ I ^0 :] I r " r^ '»ii ^ 



<-B* 



^ 



■0- 2| I 2 



2 ll 2 



^ 



2 1 

1 01 1 



4 2 1 



1 8 



4 |2 ll 12 



1 1 8! 4 



0=0 



^. 



^ 



4i 



^=g=y 



?f^^=f^ 



1? "^ « )t^ 

1 l1 



^ 



g <^0 



3 f 



^^^#f 



4 3 4 



1 1 4 



2i 8 1 



I, -81' 3! gi .31 2i 3l ^1 3l 2| 3 2| 2 



ja 



F 



?^*S 



x=z 



ptt 



— ■ h-s--*'--j- -#i- tjj- y V * 1 2 *^ 



8 1 I 



3 4 



A^' y\'\ '1 1 '1 


3 2 3 


2 383 23|28 1481 8 


F^ 


1 


1 2 4 — -, -^ 



^1^2 I 


_^T^2 r-^2 . « I T* — 9 




2 


1- 4 ' 



^ I. 41 1 41 14 13, 



2j t| , 2| 0.0 



4 

_a 4 



1 



t±t 



4.-0-0 
2 4 — 

9746 







7y 



Hef(.re conelndinjr this chapter, I shall point ont two sixths in snccession which or 
cnr in the minor mode, and which may be performed very rapidly. They affe the folKiwing. 






^ 



I 



r 



By pressioj^ d<twn \ery firmly the fifcst and third fingers, which tajre the Wst 
sixth, »nd caasiug the second and fourth fingers . to descend exactly together on the 
strings, we shall,. by practice, sncceed in making the doable shake. 

The folIowilBg will serve as an exercise for the fingers in this matter . 



D.UIMOR 






i 



3 4 3' 4 3 4 






^^^^ 



T his may be performed in every key . ^Ve will here only give it in F minor . 



4' 3 4 _ 



F. MINOR 



.1 * 1 a 1 



3 43 4 



4343* 34|3 1^L^_ f^^^i^ n^a^i 4. 

8 I 2 1 8 ^^^^ I 2 1 2 14 ^^^^ J 

It will readily be seen, that it can be played equally well on the other strings.. 

Much more might be said respecting the different chords which I have named ; 
but I mast guard against needless prolixity. I trust, however, that nothing has been 
omitted which is essential for imparting a. sufficient knowledge of their fingering. 



9746 



80 



CHAPTER XI. 

OF THE FINGERING OF ARPEGGIOS, AND OF THE 
EXTENSIONS WHICH OCCUR IN THEM. 



An arpejrjrio consists of the notes of a chord played in rapid succession, the bow 
passinjr alternately from one string to another . Of this, I now purpose giving some 
examples . 

As the bow always touches three strings, and sometimes even four, we are constantly 
playing in three parts, which renders the fingering complicated . In the earlier exam- 
ples on fingering and bowing arpeggios, I shall only employ three strings; observing 
that, in performing arpeggios on the Violoncello, the up-bow is mostly nsed . 

In the following example, the first two notes are played with an up-bow, and the two 
next with a down-bow, taking care that the strokes of the bow appear detached . • 




While varying the bowings, I shall always preserve the same harmony, in order 
that those who wish to practise them, may hot have their attention diverted either by 
the fingering or by the harmony . The next example may be played by detaching all 
the notes, either with a down -bow, or with an irp-bow. 



K X AM PtW . 




9746 



It may also be played by slurrinjr the fir^t two notes and detaching the last two . 
This method of bowing is ased where, the movement being slower, we wish it to be 
more marked . 

i. JL M. 



EXAMPL 




-^^ 



. Another example, in semiquaver - triplets . 

Play the first three slurred notes with a down -bow, and the three following, 
smartly detached, with an np-bow. 




msj 



rn^.^^rr ^^ 



&w y^gfl L^'^ l^ ' e^ i£ i *;£J ^ ' ^ ^ 



This arpeggio may also bt- ]> I ayed detached thronghout. 



BXAMPI.E . 




The next may be played by slurring the first three notes with a down-bow,and 
smartly detaching the three following, with an np-bow . 



EXAMPLE . >-^ tf ^ 



&^<3. .rr.. 




'»»t^ yC0 0»» 



^ 



Example in demisemiquavers, wrfrt aji up -bow . 



^'^^'^^^ . ^'N^'N^A ^'^^^^^^ 




974.6 



H'Z 



The following; produces a pretty effect, when played piano, but it must be done 
with the point of the bow, with an op-bow. 




^ 



^ 




^ 



^ 




-^ 



^M^wmwmw^ 



If may also be played by taking the first two notes with a down -bow, and 
the neixt following with an trp-bow. 



f: 




^^UJU^ M 'j^U^ 



Another way of playing it is, by takiiij^- the first three notes with a down -bow, 
and smartly detaching the five following . 





Example in quadnrple-quavers, bowed two by two . 

These notes must be smartly detached with extreme equality, s<» as to render 
the detaching clear to tht- ear ; exce])t the first t\No, which must be slurred, on 
account of the force which is required to impart effect to the arpeggio, and to 
mark the bass nottJs . 



r^r^r^r^K^r^^r^r-f.^»-tl^i-fr'«»^r-tK^r1r5r-1r^r^^K^l^K^»-f.^.--«B^.^r^^«^r^»^r5.-*.^Klr4»^^r-1 




9746 



These bowings may be iuiiuitely varied, but I consider it unnecessary to give oKire 
(if them in this pla&e, as they are to be met with everywhere. 

When four strings are employed in an arpeggio, the bow acts in the samj* man- 
ner as when only three are used; with this difference, that the bow takes the fourth 
string with the third, on the first note of the arpejrgio, this is the cast^ m alt the 
varieties of bowing, where the four strings are used . 



an 3 striniT^ 



K X A MP t E . 



^S 



a 



jjj - ji; jjj- 1 j jj 



iin 4* iitriiifcCs . 



-v^ 



lA 



We M^U now pass on to those arpeggios in which the fingering is more intricate. 
They shall.be giv6n with the simplest methods of bowing; as those who practise 
them may vary th* bowings at pleasure . 



EXAMPLE N" I. 



D MAJOR , V-^ ^g MS T* 



^A 



.^ ^.^-> n?^ ^^^ .i^^i^ 







1 1 ^ 




■ H4^- 



EXAMPLE. "N? 2. 



A MINOR, . (g): n 



«ith a (town hour 



537- 



^ r r r^ [Z? ff^ ttf ^ ti t 
■ 1 I III I I I ii I I 1 1 I I III' I III 









y7~ 



■^1/0 






s 




m 






— 4 



7? 



^ 



#•-3- 





^*Ty -#t^ 4 -^t^ B 




y I c 



EXAMPLE . N? 5. 



4 MAJOR. 



uifh a (I'lwii hnv. 



^gj 



Jl=^ 



-« — * 

2 / 



^ ffi^^ -^ rZ? ^ rJT ^ ttf\ 




^Q Jlffffffgff^ tt 



•*: 




EXAMPLE . N9 4. 



C M I ^ O R 



^^^ 



& 








I 2 



97*6 




S5 



^^ 



^f^ , ^^f^ , ^ ^^^ ^ T^> _^f. 




M^^M. 






02 1 ri^* 



m^^-^r^ 



EXAMPLE . N? 5. 



On *3 and 4 string'^ 



strings. . '^— ^ . 








1^3 - 1 



mw^ 



We have already met 'with the extension of the fonrth fii)g;er in the chapter oa 
HarmiHiics, where I promised to give some examples, in arpeggio, not only of the fmirth 
finger but also of the first . We will commence with that of the first fiiiger . 



9746 



H6 



EXA MPLE . N? 6. 



DMA 




:f^\ f:^ Jt^ S^ ]fA ^A _ 3?A ]f A ^A _ S:A *> :2^ 




y^ \ 0'UK- 








&^ ^ 



pffl 



^^ 






WS ^^W^ii^^ ^ a^^-0^ 



W 



^ 




i 



^ 



p^^ 



EXAMPLE.N*? 7. Extension of the fourth finger. 



112 1 



C MINOR. 



? i / . 'J 



mmm ^ ^m^^n 



4 +4-4 

^^ j?^^ ^:^ *^ 



jr)f;.f:^ -jfd^ff^ 



^^M^^qM^ .4 ^^^i^ 



87 



m 



fe 



,3,3 23 

, , 1 ^T^. 14^ :^^ ^^^N \^ :t^ ^^ fr\ 



4 4 



, s^:^,^^^, 3l^' #> _^?V'f^ , 5a .ffA 



s 



s 









I * 4 







EXAMPLE . N? 8. Doable extension of the first fiiig;er. 



:^^ £^ 



B MAJOR 



•^ f:\ ^^- £^ f:: 



^ 



;ffi 



^B 



IPN 



-^ # 



# .- >f) . .-. rft -. rfi - >fi -:>fi, - >fi - >fi ,->f# ^ ##. 




ffSOT 



s^ 



d^flJJd^W ^ 



42 1* ^^ ^^ r^4.» - r^* r r^* — — fa 

^^ ^^ ^A f^ __:f^ i^^. t-^ --^^ tfr\ 2?^ 2:^ i^ 



:^^^"j^^^'gaifflj'.^"-j^ 



^ 



?~^,f^_f^„^^ l£^,^^^,?^ £^ n^?^_f^ ff> 



SLb"i^[''£flj"£a"'cftr£ffl"«J[J[ 'l |£fl"£^ ^ 



^? 



^^ 



•^ f^ f^ f^, -f^ f^ f^ f^.,.r~fV-f^ 1^ 4^ 



^j^ i 4jjjji i ;)|^.^^ i ^tyj i ^^ 



r 



f~\,^f^ f^ 1^^. ^Hg^ f^ fA ■f^ 




1 2 4 "^^ "^^ ^^ i 1 4 »^^ J 1 3 

These examples appear to me sufficient to impart a thorough knowledge of the 
fingering; of Arpeggios. N'.* 7, of the Exercises, in Part II of this work, is written wi- 
tirt-ly in arpeggios, the fingering of which must not be passed over as indifferent. 

9746 



8H 



CHAPTER XII. 



PASSAGES SUITABLE FOR DEVELOPING AND PUTTI^JG 
IN PRACTICE ALL THE PR I NCI PLES • OF FINGERING . 

JV? i. 

There are some methods of bo^viug; which require a particular ki^d of fingerinjr; 
for example, in passages of triplets like the following, if the first two notes are 
slurred and the last detached, the regular emplo;y^ment of three fingers in succes- 
sion will be preferable to any other fingering, as it agrees with the movements of the 
bow, and (as may be easily proved) produces neatness and a great equality of tone . 

' EXAMPLE IN E FLAT; PLAYED BY SUCCESSIONS 

OF THREE FINGERS, WITH A DOWN BOW. ' 




4,tn. ^^\ -^ — — - 



1 12 4 4 2 



' iri j4j' 




1 3 * * 1 8 * 



1 




PR ' ^' W- P^ 



97+6 



^ 



m 




^^ 



^ u^\ LLJ l 



fct 



m 



1 3 



'gA-Pca'CCT'C^ W 



# ! 









g ' #' 



It is well to practise the scale in ascending, on all the strings; and often very ad- 
vantageons to ascend it by means of the second and third strings, and even by means. 
of the fourth string . The folldwing passage, -which is easily played by ascending the firet 
scale on the third string, would he very difficult if done in any other way, particularly io 
different keys^as I here give it, namely, in G, A flat, B flat, and D flat. 



G MAJOR, 




n' 1 g 1 2 I f) ^n ^ g I 8 1 ')' 3 (^ name 




12 1 2 1 2 /"S 2 3 1 (j) 



S^P^ string-. 



■n:^ 



\) MAJOR, ^'^b % 'rw ^' Jm i 




374.6 




y t ? 1^8 1 2 3 1 ^ 

In the next example, the first scale must be ascended on the fowrth string. 

4s" string', 



4*.'' strings —^T^ 3^ \si^^' /^^ 

W — A. *■ <l O s;4ni<> mtilifciftn. 




Kami* n'isttiou. 



The practice of the scale by successions 1)? three fingers mnst not be neglected, 
especially on the neck -portion of the finger-board. Here is a symphony- passage Avhich 
very often occurs, and which also is frequently missed, through not employing the above 
fingering, which renders it very easy. 



KXA 



X". stnntJ'.i 

T"^4 1 




1 l> 9746 2 ' 



The following is the same ,-|jassat^e, rn'odiilitrng into all the keys by a ^rogressioir of'yi 
sevenths, which will be very good for practice. The same fingering; is nsed throughout. 



KXA 



MPtE . V-- g 




„.l i A. 



4 18*1*4 



* 1 4 



This passage is very monotonons, but it assists in acquiring a thoroi?gh: knowledge of 
the neck -portion of the fingerboard, and the method of fingering here employed is a' 
great resource in unexpected passages containing fiiany sharps or flats; namely,, when 
many runs occur, in keys where the use of the open strings is impracticable . 

It should be remarked, that the scale can always be played regularly with the same. 
fingers, in all the keys, and there is nothing else of importance in this passage; for the 
latter half of the measure may be varied in different ways, which frequently happens . 
Here are some examples of it . 



r.*^ EXAMPLE, 



2";^ EXAMPLE 



S"";' EXAMl^L 




.,. fet'll^ l 



K. ^S 



^ The f.'nlldSviMjr is another variation of the second half of the measu-re, which wnll serve both ti 
exercise \he first fijiger and the bow. Kej^ularity of fiiijijerinjr has compelled me to avoid tlie 
oj)eu strinj»;s, except in two instances, where it would ha%p been absirrd not to use them. 

.^^ haim* position. 




same Pns; 



For the practice of descending on the same string . 



KXAMPLE 



i.O.^^^ 




f^ '-<j 1 a 4 1 ^4, 1 2 3 12 3 




. -- , I 4. 2 ^ * ^ " 974f5 . ' 



9:i 

The double scale of D, in the above example, may be fiii}»;ered at pleasure, it being \ery 
easy and, on account of the harmonics, suiting all kinds of fingering: but if the same 
passage had to be played in E flat, in D flat, or m B natural, then the method of as- 
cending the doable scale by successions of three fingers would be the most convenient. 



2 ? String 



ill K flat. W r ^ ^_^ . 




9746 



94 



JV7 J^. , 
For the practicw'of asceiidiii^ and deHcehdiiin oii the first string. 

1st 



in B FLAT. 



^m 



B^^^^^ 




1 2" 



1 4 2 4 

1^' striiiff. 



.^'' I^^'^fll 



2— -y 




/r 



m^^ 



jv? 6. 

Of the same kind as the preceding. 

Name Position. 




* "^ ] 2 4 1 2 3 I 3 y 

9746 f-i'K- PiisitiM,,. 



.V'.' 7. 

F<ir asreiiiliiiji; and desctti(iint;' tin the same striiijr 



9.) 



I-,' P..Mti..ii 



I N a M.«joR.-^^:!^^"*H: - J JJy 





1 '^ 1 



X': 8. 
. The objt'ct of this passage is to shiiw the manner of arriving at font different shakes 
by the same fingering, namely, by always ascending the scales by siiccessidns r)f three 
fingers, in the same H^ay . The only point to be attended to, is the proper choice whe- 
ther to ascend on the first, or on the second string . 

FIRST SHAKE. 
By ascending on the first strinjr . 



saiTie P<i 



IN A MAJ 




fi 'IL'C^ 



974fi 



96 



SECOND SHAKE . 
By asceiidiiii;; on the sec<»ii({ striate . '^- siruiir. 

9,<^ String 



IN A MAJOR 




THIRD SHAKE, 
By ascending on the first string;, 

Z** Striny. 



IN A 



MAJOR. <f ^ ' '' J[T. ^^ ^ ^ ' 



_ l^' Striri^^,,,-- ^ .^. M.-ft- ^ 



same Pdtj; 



same Po 




I^t Position. 



14 1 14-1 T..,.:*:.,_ 



1 4. 1 
l^t Strinjf. 



Hame Position 



^ 1. our.IIg. 

"^^ 4, 1 * 




97*6 



FOURIH SHAKE. 



H7 



M\ iiscfiHlijiu the triple octave on the second strinir. ii' -■— '. 







■fi-'^ 



2 3 12 3 




* « i 4 



^ TTT^ '^^ . :7 .^ ^ ij^' V-?3 fTi 1^ 



2".' Strii 




^^>^ 



1 i 3 13 



samp PoK 



. 1 






The sca.es in the ab(i\e fonr exerfises mig;ht be ascended ditfereiitlvs o» account 
of the many hnrmonics and opea stri<(^s which occur in the key of A major; but if 
we wished to play the same passaj^es in the key of A flat, we shoal ci be obliged to 
fingbi- the^n iik the wny marked beiUtw The preceding; examples hare only been given 
to show that this fingering is well adapted to the open keys . I leave those who prac- 
tise it, to judge whether a method of fingering which adapts itself to many keys, with- 
out losing anything of its regularitv'. Ines not deserve the preference . Here follow the 
same exercises in A fiat . 

FIRST SHAKE, 
By ascending ou the first i.tring 

3? Strin,;-. 



3<f 



IN At» 



V- -^-J-J- f f 4 1 U^ ,2 3-2"r7, -titj 

J 2 * sain.-. Fusition. 






^ M- 



t^ n *t t 




^WaWl^gTO^ 



— V- 




974.fi 



!*S 



SECOND SHAKE. 
By a^(erMiiiijr oti ttu- si-cniid striuji;, 



' ■ - j€ 'f:^. 



^ A 1 * S.I 111- P 













y -^ 1 y o______ ^ — V ^Y — '— ' V 

sa me Pnsitinn. _ „-— -^ l^L— ■ ' () 



^rei 



ffl^Srf 



Uj f*|^z 7^^ 1 2 ^r" 9 ..,.„. p,.,t,„n. y >J ' V 

--—0 1 ^ ' "^ • L '2 



THIRD SHAKE. 
B} ascending on the first string 



IN A !' 



M A J O R . - p ) ^ ' . ' V ^^ 



3'} StriniT, 




f 




-^—e>~ 




i-^?^msi 



is 




:?^^ 



•- ^•■'-'|'■■u^__y o ',' — ^-—'^ y o "^ '^^ (\ 







2 ) ,S I Y 



9746 



FOURTH SHAKE. 
By ascelKlidjr thf- triple octaNe <in the secmul .-.truii;". 



9,'V 



2'.' Str 



Qh . \,L ' — — 'w^^* .rTI r^ izk 

IS .7 MAJOR. ^ -^ \f (|', p - p] J J J ~i»Lg r . ' ^ " ^ 



— —' ^ M 

-^# *^t E t E 

-^^ ^^^ptz;z E: = := 







y^F^^^^^ 



■ — ^=-*- s-0-^ 







? I 4 



* * • > -' < ' I 4 1 + I I 









^ 



I 1 

in- Pii!.itir,n. 



I 2 

3'.' 9. 

CHROMATIC PASSAGES SLURRED. 

To H\oid corifnsion throujrh the nse of many fijrdres, 1 often ni^rk oiilv the lirst 
fin)i;er, wheii the second and third are iiiL-nded to follow it; see thr rhminarK >cale, 
for further information . 



IN [) MINOR . 



] 






mi 



' — '■' i " I 




1 1 2 I 2 4 2 3 2 21 



^= 



0^^ y*M *m0 f 0m 



4 1 1 



: fAff'^r 



I 2 



§ 



9746 



100 



t7 ( 



2 . Mmitf. 



- ^ mmJM ^ 



h* Pll^iti.in. 



't^ l JjJ^J. 



?i*E 



.Ti m^ i 



* '»^'* 



'-"-^ 



^^ 



r r J I r^ ^ 






32: 



^MtT 



^=# 



4 12 3 



^ 



l»-^i =-T* 



CD* CD' CD' 



-V^frr ^ >,^ 



^y ^^;^ l »^ .TOjO i ff .^ ^' ^ 



■* ' ' 1 2 1 



12 4 13 4 12 4 



^ 



^^ 



i 



:^=^ 



^^^^s^ 



P 



V ri " r«^^ ^ 



^ 






^cJUJ iL^ m g^ 



Pr» r-H 



1 3 3 



1 2 + 13 4 



1 2 4. 



1 1 



^ 



IN?^^&^^j'l}.mm>£:J!-s-m 



I 



2 3 14 






P 



E£^ 




P^ ^ #t^-^ 



/^ 



1 1 



te 



- » ^ j H 



i^ 



i 



9746 



X'> 10. 

Chrninatic jjassa;j,t-s dftaehed . 



lot 




Hf^uldT passage, for ascending by the iiiter\als of the diminished seventh 



, 4l*r^r3 ' J 1 jf^J74s»^4 



^= f" ^ , - r Iff^^l lUf^ 




9746 



10'^ X'! 12. 

Similar to the last; for asceiidiiii;; and desceridiiii!; bv the same iiiterv^ils 




g 



2,- s: 



l^l__2i. 



4th 1^, 



.J. 1 1 ^ 1 ^ , .1 I 1 A 1 A "T I ' ^ 



,.^^ 



+ ' 1 4 1 4 I t- ' 14 14 



^ 



'^^J r 




r' "i^ 2^ '^ ti -: *•" n 



2'J 1^ 2'.____ I.!ii- 2'.' 



frr^ rrn ,^+ r?^4 f <> • -?:?, ^^ ™ ^^ 



5^ 



W 




42 |4' 1414j4' I^I4 

■0 ! 



^ 



^f^ 



It 



2:' 



«./ 2 




fr^ 




'^i-2i 



-T-tr 



^ 



-iv- 




'h V • 5^-^ 



4' I4I4|4' 1414 



F.t Piisitidii. 



[«>-: 




t^i^^^^iU 



^^ 



-r— 



3i- 2lt '-^V^2i. 3l4th 



^^^^1 

^ r' '*'*,•;- 



W= 





9746 



If^v *'^ ^^ -r * 14-1 ■+ ""g ^ ,-:; 1 ■* i4 1 :^ + 1 + 1 + 1 ; . 



^ 



^ 



i 



^S 



i 



=i 











^ 




4 2 1.4 



w 



i^ 



l\'; PnsUion . 




^ 



-=1 y^* ^#' 



^ 



d»'iiii -Piisitinn, 



N 



yrr y 







>^^ 




1*--^*-^ 



-^^-z:0- 



m 



i 



3 



+ " '1414 



f 





974fi 



11)4^ 



X'.' IS. 

DETAILS OF SOME EXCEPTIONS IN FINGERING. 



It V ill be remembered that, in the article on the Diniinishtd seventh, I have;,stafefl 

that this chord is taken with the first and third finjrers . 

7 e) : ^=— 

EXA M PL E 



'W- 



*=r 



Diuiinished ■S'^venth. 

Here the D on the first striiijj, and in the third position, is taken with the third fin- 
jrer, instead of with the fourth, which is generally used . 

By turning; to the article on the Sixth, ia double stops, it will be .seen,that the >l\th 
note of the scale is taken with the third finger instead of with the fourth ■ This is 
illii.ilrHted in the next example, at •><•, by the same D :ir before. 



2? 



l^- s, 



string;. 



K X A M P I. F. 



^ — ^ - - "^ — ^ 






^ 






34 string-. 2*^ String-. 

By reterriiig, to the article on Thirds and Sixths, towa,rds the end, it will be seen 
that the Diminished Third is treated of - 

Here, atraii:, the same I) is taken with the third finger instead of with the fourth . 



L <^ 2 



K X A M P L K 



2-^2 



ig ^y. 1 rif^T-M 



t 



i 4 



Me will now give some successions of chnriis, to prove the necessity of this ex- 
ception . 

3. •''i 2 



3, 2- 



KXAMPr,K fa): tt t| 
in V^ MINOR. ZZ 



m 



^m 



1 giu-j \rj:i'^,^'^:iT^ 



2 •: '2 

4 4 



^ 



4.1 2| 21 31 2 1, I 



2,3, 3 2 2 



1, "i 4^ 2 



1, 1,^1 "I l,^: ", I, 0; 4, 






&<;■■ 



'2 l4 



. At the end of the article on Dvuhle stops, a piece is given as a Recayitulation of 
what precedes, in which this exception js frequently osed, on account of ,^the constant oc- 
currence of the diminished seventh and the minor sixth therein, 

9746 



Alth'iiiuh this exception seldom t^ikes place, except in double stops, I here give t\\ 
passag;es in single notes where it also occurs; but if we narrowly examine these tw 
passages it will be seen, that the succession, of notes requiring the exception, beloni^ 
rather to the order of double stops, tban to the diatonic order. 



10.5 
I) 



FIRST PASSAGE. 






2 



4 .: 



■^ 1 



20 2 i 4, 14..;^^:^^, O j.; 



/r 




The notes- which occasion the exception are the following : — 



^g 



^i 



X 



1 



3 1 2 4 2 



1 "■' * M ^ 



t^ 




^ 



and it is easy to show that they belong rather to the order of double stops, than 
to the diatonic order . 

3| I 2 



KX AMPLE . 



•31 I 2 I 

iJ ^ I . N "i 3. 1 2 1 



w 



SECOND PASSAGE. 
In single notes, v^ith the exception 

*1 4 T*^*;^ 4^4.^1 ■g-4 4- 1-1 ^4 "rTg"*^. 2^J-^04g 

~m im - M ^ — ■m—' — :■ -m-- — -m^^ — -m-r-m * — - m . _ 'W — -' • ^ - Wm - ~ 




The Dotes which here occasion the exception are these:- 




^ tei bay 



''"'' In this instance, aisi», it iii ;' sy in sti,;'.' thai, the succession beliui^s rittiu-r t(» the 
nrder of double stops, than to the diatonic order. 



8 3 2 1 



RX AH PL K 



1 4 + * K—— -— - — ^ ^ 



^e 



AVe see that the above is more like a passa)j;e of double stops, played in a divided 
manner (en batterie) , than like one of a diatonic kind: and, indeed, in the real diato- 
nic order, this exception does not take place. 

P.' P..siti..n 



l^* RX AM PL 



K. ^^V i ' rrrjl 



I 2 



f4 1 '^ * 3 1 




^^?^ 



4 2 I 



' ' + ^ '0+2 ^^^•l 




^gffi 



' * 4 ' 2 ^ + 



-«-*- 



2- .V.V.... ^ ^ MgiTlErdij'TO ^ 

' '^" ■ • ■ '.3 f 



I + I 4. 1 4 , 4. I 4 3 1 „ :^ „ 3 3 ^ 



gsrfrfTffrgiJf^^ajfifllit^^tfa 



'SSij ^^ "3 Baa 4 3 1 3 1 0?^ 



■M^ 



^5r— ^ 



i 



In playing the followiojj; ])assaj£f, I should fin}i;er it as here indicated 



KX A 







* *'0l iTT" r4.3 3 1. 



3 4 3 1 2 



^^ 



But in playing; the next, in donble stops, I should finger it thus: 



— 2, ' 



KX AMPLE 




. ^^ 



3 13 



9746 



/or 



Here fcillovvs a rait' example of the diminished seventh taken with the second 
and fourth fingers, hecaiise it is preceded by the bimple seventh 



[N C MAJOR . '. (^ ' 



* ' n 



:i-^^^;! :j i !!. ^ 



Si^n of the diiiii- 
nikiht^d sertMith Jy-] 

2 



l-r^^r.x ';i ^ 



ol 



33: 



I 



In the next example, the same diminished seventh is taken with the first and third 
finjfers, as it should always be . 



2 1238 -^ ^1 1|. 1| 2 II g| 4| 2| Ij 4, 3, ■*, 



X." 14. 

OF THE ^DIFFERENCE IN FINGERING, BETWEEN THE DIMINISHED 
THIRD AND THE MINOR THIRD. 



The interval ui the diminished third is taken with the first and third fitij^ers, because 
it contains only two half tones; and that of the minor third, with the first and fourth 
fing;ers, because it contains it tone and a half , Let us first examine che difliinished 
third . 



Sn' P..6itii.n. 



^ 



2"! Pc.siticin . 



I--* P.,siti..n . 



K X A M P L E 



. »^ ^ ^^ J^ ^ ^^ J . ^" ^^ ^ 



m 



To proceed somewhat methodically, I will descend from one position to another; ta- 
king first the interval of the diminished third on the first string, and afterwards that 
of the minor third on the second string. 

UiininiNhed Thirci 



KXAMPtK . 

H':^ Position 



m 



.^^^ 



"5 3 2~ 



m 

1 



ii"."* Position 



H Position 



.. : r f f f II *r 

i S ~3 '~2 l~ 



i 



^ 



^ i-^t * 



i 



^^^i^ 



) 2 4 2 

I will ,n»w give a passage snfficiently long to put this theory in practice, and thereby 
to prove t^e troth and convenience of this distinction . 



/08- 
In A miiKtr. 



E \ \ M P 1. K 



:v: p.isiiii.ii. 








l^ta ^ c mdQ-l Ci:0''Li'.D 'l' ± D'AD' l iifl§ 




12 3 124 1 








1 1 

^ lr_ 



\ 2 



;( 1 2 14 2 



:^ 



4 2 J 



14 3 2] 

Let lis now consider the iaaihor third, as it presents itself the most iiKtiiraM 



D Minor. 



C Miimr. 



l^' String. ^ 



Mi 



b- 



B I? Minnr. 



-i 3- 



2".<» P.isiti.m. 



^ 



^ 



-F- 3- 



^.t Position. VS.'' 



Jzi 



#4: 



G Minor. 



1 



-is. 



a"."* Position . 



m 



T Minor . 



3 



l^t Position. V^ ^ 



1 H 4 

eI> Min.T. 



I 



H'V Pobitioi 

2";^ String. 

a'.'' Position. 

13 4 13 4 1 ' 3 4 

Unity of fingering constraiftes me to take these thirds in the way here marked; there 

are, however, many persons who take them in the following manner . 

D Mim.r. C Minor. g(, jii„„^_ 

r.' stnng. -^: ^ ^ 4 ^^ (g): ^t ^ , , Xg^^^'l ^'^^ 



^"' Striiit. 

V} H.,sitln,|. 



I 2 3 

G Minor . 



1 2 3 

F Minor. 

2& 



2H'l Po 



,sition. V- :zr: . -L p.tpr.sition. v lr- ■ 



1 2 3 



974«! 



I 2 3" 

Eb Minor . 



2 3 



I cannot say thnt this fiii^'-eriiijr is nhsoldtelv bad, as I know uf no b^d ficijjerinjr hot 
th.ii whiili deranifts the proper po^-ith.. t thf- hand, and which consequently a^wi-s ri'-e to 
a faulty intonation and the .irolnction ut a bad (jiiality of tdiiei.which cannot be ^aid.of thisr 
but I do affirin that it has i-.v.u defects; first, in beitiir upposed to unity of fingering , which 
introduces confusion into the merhanism of playing; secondly, m being (mnr, aiul even worth- 
less', while the former is rich in resources . This I now pmceed to pnive by the fjlioS^iing 
example, in which I shall employ the thirds of G minor, if F mwior, ai)d lastly uf E.flati 
minor, which have been given above; because^ thyse King on the second string, which is in the 
centre, present me with greater resources fur this demonstration . 










- L \'f*' 



.|l4 1 24 1 * 
v.? Miii'ir. 



1^ 




H^fa^^^f^^^^ipgiaj ^ lea ^ % 






^ w*r-wr^ --M*s Ml 



1 :■ 



i I ^ 



1 ,,. TTi+ 1 2 3431 *■*• +^- — -+ 




ssi^^^^§§ 



^^ 



1 9748 






^ 



no 

The precedliija; exampli^ must have fully shown the advaiitaire of the first method of 
fingering over the second; and I trust that those who before thought it a matter of abso - 
lute indifference which of the tw^o methods they employed, will now change their opinion . 

^y 15. 



l^t Position . 



3_2 4 




'J T^JI^^TTjn 









w^^ 



'rrfr^^dfrry:illff':^l^ 



T±^ 



3 4 2 1 3 12 3 I 2 



P 



"2".J String-. [- '^'""J"' y 

L« ^^ ; 



12 1 2 1 3 I 2 ,21 



r2SE 



tH-:jm ' ^>!^^^ > .^^^ 




Ills ^::is:iis^a^ till ^a^ 



'^ 1 37 







0LAM- 



2 iTl 3 ' 2 J 3 13 12 1 3ll rt^I 3 1 2 ' ^ 

Of the sani" kind as the last; always on two strings, like sixths. 



I 



0-0- 



■S: '^.n. 1^» 



d od 



o'.' S; -^ 2 



3? 2' 






P 



sj.'^ ;r8 



2^,d 2d 



4rti3l 



4th 3^ 4^ 3'.l 



13 2 2 4 14 2 3 4 





14 2 3 4 



^ 






i#- 2' 



, _ l^t 



s 



I ^f i # 



-tj-- ^^rH ii frn^ ^ 



s 



^ 4 ■■^ ^-J- 4 -a 



^ 




13 13 2 1 



l»i^ Position. 



* V 



;i^ 



^^ 






^ffi 



gm 



1 3 



C^g^^^^^^^^^^ 



ffj^KJ 



^ 



9746 



The same [ms.saj^e a tone lower, with the same fingering. 



/// 



IqJ 



IK F MAJOR 



m 



2j!s ^*2'.^ 1^-' 



3'.'2' 




^ 



1+8 * * 



1 4 2 



4fh 



Srt 



4\' 3'.* 




142 3*142 34 



f\\ fr\ ' * ^f F^^^ 





As above, with the. same fingeriag 



IN E MAJOR. V^ tf ^*^3r 



^fc = 



142 24. j^g 34 



^^ 




^ 



^ 




ii .gg i LiT'ifV i rryffrn 



14 2 2 4 

Z 



14 2 34 I 4 M 




^ ^ 



S 



3 4"3 1 2* . ^g 342 , 2 1 




^ ^ 1 2T 



I 



IN e1> MAJOR.^; 



^ ^'i-ird:^'frrr;'rr i rrr,vr iiJ TP i MP 

^'^ LLLl^. Mill m-LlJ 7 2 4 f 4 •'"s •^J.4 



^ 



»! 




^^ 



14 2 34 



f^ . -0- 



# 



M 



^ 



^ 



g'cDic 



m 



12 3 4 2, 2 1 



3 1 



I 3 



■^ l J.|f l ^J;^i Ul'|f.rt^l>^||Jll 

81 1 r *»• same PuNition • I 



19 « 

'Dhition •- 

There are matiy other ways of filtering this passage, but I prefer the above, f«>rtv»« 
iiasdiis; first, becaasre it requires the least shifting of the hand; secondfy, because, frwm its 
ngiilanty, the same passage can be played in every key, with the same fingering. 

97+6 



//^ .v'.> 17. 

One of tht! chief causes of i)layinj;^ with a false intonation upon stringed instru- 
ments , arises from not well fJKiii^ the fingers upon the string, and from raising them 
unnecessarily, l»y which the hand loses its firmness . I have met with persons who never 
had more than one finger on the string; so that their hand appeared on th« fingtsr- 
hoard (if I might use the expression) as if it were on the ice But perhaps I shall be 
told, that playing out of tane is a proof of want of ear . To which I reply, that I ha\e 
known many ])ersons who sang extremely well in tune, and yet played falsely . Now, 
there cat) be no doubt that it r«quires a better ear to sing in tune, than it does to play 
in tune; because, in the former case, we have neither open strings nor vibrations t«^) ser\e« 
as rallying points, and the chest is much more delicate in its strnctare,than the strings 
of an instriim;ent . The fault of which I here speak, of needlessly raising the fingers, 
is by no means rare . It commonly happens with persons who are not thoroughly 
practised, and some of them retain it for a considerable time, if they are rmt well 
instructed . I shall now give some examples, in which notes occur that are fre- 
quently repeated, and which will show the advantage to be derived from keeping the 
fingers which have been once used for them, firmly pressed on the string; in order 
that when the same notes are again required , the fingers may be fully prepared for 
them, withoiit making a new movement : 

I must observe that the minims in the following passages have, in reality, only the 
value of a semiquaver . They are merely intended to show, that the fingers which take 
them must remain firmly pressed on the strings during their full value . 



KXAM I'LK 
in A MA JO K 



m^ , 1^ j^- ^ !f!^\W^^p7t^ 



1 I 4 1 



2 10 4 



^^^ ,^, ^^M-B ^.ra 't9 | , ^ Jg, P^.S3 




It is to be remarked that, in the ]irece(ling passage, the hand is placed in rtne of its 

\viil'r,t positions, without extension . 

9746 



',t-..? 



. 7/^ 



The second measure of the above passage is not undeserving of notice, it is this:- 



m 



f^'T^!^.^ 



10 4 



If the second finger, which takes B, be not kept very firmly pressed on third string, 
it will happen that, instead of extending the fourth finger to take G sharp on the se- 
cond string, the whole hand will be advanced; so that, when the same B is required a- 
gain, it will be found too high, because the hand has been moved np .This is not mere 
fancy on my part, for I have many times observed it, in giving lessons to those who had 
already acquired a certain degree of proficiency . 

Another passage of the same kind, entirely in the first position, and with the same 
fixed pressure of the fingers . 



IN G MINOR 




Wmm^ 



T might multiply these examples without limit, and yet not succeed in presenting all 

the cases in which it is desirable not to raise the fingers needlessly ; but enough have 

been given to show the necessity of keeping the fingers pressed down, and of directing 

the attention to this circumstance: besides , independently of the firmness of hand to 

■which that tend- , every one knows that in simplifying the mechanical movements we have 

UHined a a"rea.t advantaire . 

* ' 9746 



Ill 



J^'i> 18. 



If it is essential not to raise the lingers needlessly, it is equally so not to quit, 
without reason, the position in which we are playing . If a passage can fee played, ei- 
ther wholly or in part, in the same position, we should not quit it, unless the bowingre- 
quires it, or some particular expression is sought to be given . It is generally advanta- 
geous to remain in the same position as much as possible . 

Here follows a passage, the first line of which should be played in the first position; 
the second, in the second position; the third, in the third position; and the fourth, in the 
fourth position . 

2 



l^J Posit i( 



2".'' Position. 

Tilt same fingering'. 



U m i mL J 4. T ^,.J.-.o 4. 9 rjiiiH ^-^ t 94:9 :^i 



m 



4 3 






1 



S''"' Position. .I Zg- — ^ 

The same fingering". .' ... , 




4*? Position, 

Tht> Bamo fing-pi-irig'. 



9 



^^^ 



^^i^^^^^^Tg 



!*- 



w 



ft^ 



^ 



j^ j 1 1^"^ iO"r" — 1 ^ I " ^^ T i — — n 



Here is another, the w^hole of which should be played in the third position,withont 
quitting it for an instant . 

To 3*42^ 



IN A Mi 



"»-• S^»/» l ' J^^Wf ^ 





."^ 



^^^EfrFs 



-I — ~ 



e& 






T&— 



:^ 



BKffi^a » 



_B 1 



9746/ 



The |irif'r-(liii^ pa-ssage is common, but the foUow.iiijr is more rari-,;uid offers ^^reatt-r n^otit - 
ces from being in the minor mode. This should be pla3-ed throiij^hout in the second position, "^ 



IN C M 






^ 



t^c& i ^j^a 




m 



m 



icld'c!a'llL':£i'iad'dd''/fgWl£0'P l 



2 4 4 1 



^^l ^J^^J j 




23 231 _ 23 



m 



^m 



r0\^rm-^f\ 



te 



^W mm'^^\' ^ 




13 14 



m 



\'^ '^\\ 




\t 




^ 



tti^.^jfL 



^ 



^«• ^ ^^ 



'i^rriLf^r Lrrri'Clirril P 



2 1 4 



1 4 2 







< ^^b ' uJ^-mT^4CT fJT^i rn^., [JPi OT rJi^i fJi^.. rs 



1 ^". 



ig^i P^ JTp ipj: CT Ijg.P]]^'^ 

974-6 -^ f * I * -G- ' ■ 



The f(»ll(»wiii^ passes alternately froni one yxisitioii to another, in ascending and 
dt'Scending 




.LUJiricarJicLkrJiclrrJ 



l'^*P"s: 




The 19 , Exercise, in Part II of this work, forms the completion of the above, as it is 
entirely in the half -position . The practice of these passages should not be neglected, 
as they are useful for acquiring a tt^orongh kimsvledge of the lower part of the finger-board. 



^'9 19. 

Passages are sometimes met with, in which the thnmb descends from one degree to 
another, and as these should be known, I shall now endeavonr to give an idea of them, 
writing the examples in easy and sonorous keys, in order to facilitate the comprehension 
and performance of them . In the first exaai))le, the thumb always descends on the first 

string, the first three measures serving only as a , (reparation for this. 



same Position. 




^m 



f 



^ 



rwf 







9746 



U7 

The above passajre is Tery difficnlt; if it stood in triplets, it voald be much easier, 
as ve conld then nse two strings, employing onlv the thumb aird second finjfer . Here, 
again, the first six measures ser\e only as a preparation, and the thamb always descends 
on the first string. . 



same PM^itiun 



KXAMPLE 
in D MAJOR 




V-.*- String. 



pt >ifii«- Position. sami-F.,Mti..ii.- . 




ifccfx 



Lij LiJ ih LU ' m iljj Lu^-'^ IjJLj ' -^Y^ 



This way of descending with the thumb may he ])rHCtised in all the keys. As an ex- 
ample, here follows the same passajre a note lower, with the same fingering. 



Htiip P-'i>iti*in . 






san:l^' P. >tti 



W^ 



TT^^i iiittt^ ;fgf£gg£gfgg mttmU^u 



"^ 



LIT LIT LIT I 



18-^ 



1 g I 1 3 1 9 



saoQp Pns.iti> 



>Amo P >itiiin. 




4 P _ # 



,, f \ W g p-y 



i 



0^ n 







0\0 



^^ 'ul^ 



-0 '0^0 



0^0 



0\ - 0^0 



0^ 



I 










» » '» 



T^ 



? 






9746 



It will be readily onderstottd that the same thinj;; can be done on the other strinjrs. For 
instance, here it is on the third and fourth strinjrs, the first six measures servin}r merely as 
a preparation . Here, however, the thumb mast always descend on the third string. 

saints Pnsiti'm. 



EXAMPIK 
in C MAJOR , 



ffPffff i fffffrrf^!ffl£Fl i 




V P P 

These ]>assages do not always occur of the length here given; but I thought it advisable 
to extend them as much as possible, so as to facilitate performance by their study. 

At the end of the Chapter on the Scales, I have stated that there are some passages in 
\vhi( h it is indispensable to take two notes in succession with the same finger ; and of these 
I shall now gi\e some examples . This method of fingering, in my opinion, should ne\er be 
resorted to, except when absolutely necessary^ as in the following example :- 

Fl F?ST EXAMPLE. 



I S A MAJC 



"■■ #^,l u''r.rrrfrrr i p[Xj;^ca j' i j^^ B 



M 




iS 







1 1 



^:qcII;ii%LL'i[:Gj',i^i/^.,:[D-ilQ'cJ 



w 



pF^:[lim:ii! \ F^":il:\-^m'l m 



1 2 4.1 

Here follows' another example, nearly similar, which it appears to me equally impossible 

to play, without taking two . successive notes with the same finger. 

9746 



SECOND EXAMPLE. 



IN B P M A J 










I 



%^j^4gi^'i:Dj'#lr^ggi 



s 




^s 



ma^p^ 




/^ 



3a: 



^ 



yj-j'y 



*^*^ 



i~ — I 



32C 



Here is a third passage, in which the fii)jrer that takes the two notes in succession, 
glides over the interval of a third . This kind of fingering is n-'t -without difficulty, bat 
such |)assages frequently occur 



THIRD EXAMPLE. 



t^ string. ' ■ 

IN a MAJOR. ^ ^j' m TiJi^ m Jt— 




y74fi 



liO FOURTH EXAMPLE. 

Of the same kiml as the prereditij;;, with the same (i|)eratiim in ascending and in descendinjr . 



IN C MAJOR. 




The folliiwinjj; show's another wav nf fingerinjj; these passages, when they are short 
without taking two notes with the same finger . 

FIFTH EXAMPLE. 

^ ' ■ 



IN P MAJOR, 




+ 1 + 




ft is h^re -eeii that ;his rise of a third is taken with the first and fourth fingers. It 
can he perturined thus, both in asc^^iiding and in desoetiding. 

SI XTH EXAMPLE. 




Tins way of fingering answers very well, espiciaily with the method of bowing here in— 
ilj' it.tl; but if the ascent were carried farther, we should he obliged to employ tli.- finirKr- 
iiijj 111 irkfd in the third example, as it would then become much more difficult , particuii' ' 



in rr^,rd to correct intonation 



9746 



Let (IS tfXHiiurie the ^^rtine passaj^^e somiwlut niore extended, in order to prove the ri. 
ressity of employing the finji;erin}j; jr\\iiu in the third exam})le, when the ascent is cam - 
ed farther . 




It is impossible for me to foresee ail the circumstances that may occor, wherein we 
should be absolutely compelled to take two notes with the same finger, as that de- 
pends on the turn of the phrases, which varies to infinity; but I think that if atten- 
tion has been given to the foregoing exain|iles, we shall be enabled to jndge,in any 
])assage that may he met with, whether twi mites must necessarily be taken with the 
same finger, or whether this can be a\oi(lei' . 

XI' 21. 

When •." ra>>/-. ha\e to be pertormed , the thumb being placed, they are always taken 
with the thumb and third finger; and this, constantly , in every key and on all the 
strings . 



EXAMPLE. 



FN D MAJOR 




f: f: ^ 



^^ 



Wm 



[t \*ould be useless to say more on this hca^d, -iince the same finjrering always occirrs 
both in major and miliar keys . Octaves are played much in the same way on the low- 
er part of the finger-board; namely, with the first and , fourth fingers. 

9746 



i22 



KX AMPLE 

in C MAJOR 



m 



m 




+ 14 1+14 




4 



1 4 14 14 



rrn i j 



i 



5^^^ 



But it is not impro|)er to observe, that this manner of playiiii:; octaves on the 
lower part of the finger-board, only suits those persons who have a very lar^e and 
strong hand; for, if the octave be but just reached, the performance will be feeble, 
the tone will not come out freely, and the intonation will be often false . Further 
exuiiples are therefore unnecessary ; as, in this way, the fingering is always the same 
ill all the keys . It is to be regretted that so very few can avail themselves of this 
fingering, because the octaves produce an excellent effect when played in this way, and 
are obtained with greater neatness and a more perfect legato, than when the bow is 
obliged to skip over a string . 

In the following way, they can be played by every one , 

FIRST EXAMPLE. 



N C MAJOR 



^ 



-^4^0 '^ J 



4 



3f 



m 






4V4W^ 



i 



3 • 

Here we see an ascending and descending scale of octaves in C, entirely in the first 
position, which appears quite simple and easy to perform; but if it be desired to play 
these i>ctaves with a certain degree of rapidity, this fingering mut be abandoned, be- 
cause it renders the bowing irregular, as the bow does not always regularly skip over a 
string, which will at once be seen by attentively examining the above example • It some- 
times happens that a more difficult kind of bowing is used, to favor a particular fingering; 
and, on the contrary, a more difficult way of fingering is sometimes adopted, in order to ob- 
tain an easier and more regular method of bowing . In this case, the fingering must so 
co-operate, as that the bowing may be always regular, otherwise it will be impossible to 
]il.iy the octaves with neatness and rapidity . To attain to this result, we must avoid the 
"|ien strings as much as possible, and finger nearly like the fingering of sixths; that is, 
tnit to take more than two octaves in one position . 

9746 



[ N C MAJOR 



+«.''& S':' string, 
r.' P Mtinn. 



SECOND EXAMPLE 

:v 

3r_J p,,^;t/(..n. l"-* Pcis-ition 



7'^? 



.S"";'*! r.' string. 



Sn'' P,,Mti.in. 



w 



m 



351 



:^ 



22= 



ia^ 



1 4 2 



m 



^ 



Iv P.isiti..ii 



3 1 4. 2 

4'.h & 3n'' String. 



.a. 



I 



iss: 



2l I 4.^ 2 

l\t Pnsiti.in. 



^1 T 4 



4 2 



4 2 



? 



P 



I have omitted the tw'o octaves of C and D, at the beginning of the preceding ex- 
am])le,in order that it might be the more intellijrible ; for, it is evident that, in these, we 
cainiot avoid the open strings, and they must be performed as follows. 



IW F MA J o R 



i 







1 



M 



Let us now take the scale of F . 
THIRD EXAM PLE. 

^^ . 2l. 



2".''p„sn:> 



^ 



35 



O 1 
2 



m 



:i, I 4 2 
2":' PMMtu.n. 






2 1 



+ '" P.ir,iti..n. 



3S 



Positinll. _ 



^ 



:22= 



t 



2"J'Po^iti..,,. 



4 2 



I 



IN Kb MAJOR 



r.' p -■.itiuii. 



FOURTH EXAMPLE. 



■A'-:' 



V} P.isition. 



S"";' P•.^iti itl. 



w 



^ r '5 



,1 1. rnsitiun. _ .^ 

- ^ -'ti.Mi. ^ j=s- ia. Z^ 



1 

l^t P...sitinn. 



m 



i ^,^, ^. 



:±^ 



a ± 



3'".'' Piisitinn. 



31 1 4 U 

P.' Positi.in . 



31 



4 2 



1 J '] in 

2 f I g i 2 



3= 



2 ^9- 1 



I 



It must have been remarked that, in the second, third and fourth examples, the bow 
has aluays been obliged to skip over a string; and it is this which is essential for regn- 
lantN 'd' perforraaiK c- as well as for neatness and equality of tone . 

The tollowiriir i^ ,t,i octave -passage .asceuding gradually by semitones and descending 
iir^rly in a similar ui.uiiic-r . In asctinliiiy; and in descending we pass from one position to 
aiM-tlier: and il must like\M-e be obser>ed. that the four fiiiijers are employed in each 



liie.isnre 



9748 



l'^4 



4',''&.S'V' Str 



2":' H -iti.,!,. 



3'-" Fm>: 



4'.*' P.i^: 



r.'-p... 



I S !■' M A J O H . 






3'.' P"s: 






3 
4*!' P.is: 



3 14 2 

Si'.J P.is: 




S 



3 1 4 2 "n 3 ' W^ \ b ) '4 2 1 ^ Q ' l4 2 ^:( I . 2 



4'.'i(4 S''.'! Strinjc. 



\r 3 I +2 3 1 4 2 *f 1 42*' tif IT 2K ' V l <p 






3 J 4 2+. 3 1 4 



\\ is here very important to ol)ser\e that when any note is taken with the fourth fin- 
jrer on the fourth string;, its octave is always taken with the second finger on the se- 
cond string; and when the fourth finger takes a note on the third string, its octave is 
invariably taken with the second finger mi the first string . To this rule, I know of no 
exception : for example, in D major, the F sharp and C sharp are taken on the second 
and first strings with the third finger, in the first position . 



KXAM P f, K. . 
l^t Position 



^1 



t- 



1 1 1 



3 * 



If the following notes in D major had to be played, they would certainly be finger- 
ed thus:— 



4.*!' Position 



^ 



#: 



^ 



^ 



i^ 



But if the same notes and their octaves had to be performed (still in the same key), 
the seciinil finger, instead of the third, would always be nsed for the F sharp and C sharp. 
The next example will verify this assertion-. 



1%' Position. 



^i 



t- 



^ 



w^m 



2 



2 



4 10 2 1 4210 



The reason is, that the fonrth finger regulates this matter; h*ic<iuse, if the F sharp 
aiiil C shar|i were taken with the third finger, a constrained position of the hand would 
ensue in taking their octaves with the fourth finger . 
F-xaiuple of this bad fingering. 



r.' Position . 




y746 



/^5 

This is not an exreptioii, but a ^t'ut-r.^l riili-; ami it may t)« st-fu that.iu Cha]itrr 

XVI r, I have clearly shown, there should never be uinre than the distance of a semi- 
tone beiween the third and fourth fingers . As the finjrers which take an octa\e are 
always at the distance of a tone from each other, it fidlows, that any note taken with 
thf lourth finger on a lower string, must necessarily have its octave taken with the se- 
cond finger on a higher string. This rule is even applicable to passages of melody, where 
octa\es occur 'I'he following, for instance, are very common melodies, in the 

bass, in all of \vb;( li it will be obser\ed,the second finger replaces the third , in order 
that the octave of the note thus played may be taken with the fourth . 



3 1 2 



EXAMPLK- 

I%t Position , 

2":' Position 
C minor. 

3';i Position 
D minor. 



« 






1 



t 



lt]» 



4 + 3124 

ffr # r T 

— \ 1 L- ^ 









+ 

-0- 



^ 



M 



F 



f f ^ f 



^ 



Here is another which sometimes occurs, and in which the G natural is taken with 

the third finger on the second string, in the first position . 

„ , „ „ . 2 

EXAMPLK. 

in B major 



^V'^ ^] ^ 



is 



^^ 



i 



This G natural is^ merely a passing note, which does not even belong to the key, and 
we feel that it would be very awkward to make the fourth finger descend to it, as the 
following F sharp must necessarily be taken with the second finger, in order that the 
fourth may be carried to its octa\e: in this case, therefore, the octaTe regulates the fin- 
gering. The same thing sorrietimes occurs with the interval of the diminished third. By 
way of variety, I shall gi\e this example in B flat . 



3 2 1 2—4 



n B'- major. ^ ^? ^ ' i ^ ^ I j "" ^ ' ' N I ' M I I TM^ ^ J ^ ^ ^^ 



■| ^ \ \ d 

This may perhaps be termed a contrariety of fingering; but, for my own part, I con- 
sider it a perfectly simple and natural rule- . I miirht enlarge considerably on this suliject 
but think I have said enough to make m\-,f-lf thoroughly understood ami enable any < !:>■ 
to apply this rule-, whenever an occasion mav present itself. 



CHAPTER XIII. 



OF THE SHAKE. 



I shall nut waste time or paper in an attempt tit demnnstrate the h.-ats ol th'- 
shake, as if I were ahoiit to treat of somethina, new, for e\er\oiie kiios^s what a sh.ikc 
is, and besides, it is to be found in all musical works. I shall confine myselt to ji;i\ing; 
some examples for practice, recommendiiij^ that care be taken to make the beats very 
true; that the finjrer.iti heatinjr, f;t|| perpendicularly on the striiijir; and that the beats 
be made without force or stiffness . It is also nece: sary to ol)ser\e that the finder must , 
always fall op the same plue on the strinji . 

There are many persons who, thinking to acquire strength, stiffen their finjrer, and 
consequently extend or advance it in such a manner, that a shake with a major second 
increases to a third, and one with a minor second becomes g;reater than a major second. 
Let it not be supposed that this fault ap])ertains exclusi\ely to bejiinners; for I ha\e 
noticed it in the |u rfdrmance of some celebrated artists . It is a bad habit which, wh.n 
once acquired, is very difficult to correct , 

It shoold not he imagined that the (|uicke^,t' shake is the most beautiliil : fur , ni 
order to arrive at this merit, the beats must He made with the jjreatest equality, so that,' 
of the two sounds forming the shake, the ear may be able to a))|)reciate the one as clear- 
ly as the other . It is also ^eneraly known, amonji; persons of taste, that the beats should 
not he made so rapidly in an A(lay;io, as in a quick and brilliant movement , and that,when 
it is too rapid, it hecomes confused . 

It is an old error to suppose, and mere quackerv to affirm, that the beats of the shake 
shtiidd be made with jrreat force, as it by a hammer &c," for, it will be readily understood that 
such a coutimidns repetition of notes as th<t forming; the shake belongs rather to aji;ility op 
fingjer, than to force .The f'my;er should be rai--ed as hiy;h as pnssil)le, and care bf ta- 
ken to make it fall per|)eM(licMlariv on the striuji;, in order that in desceiidintr fiiuii a dis- 
tance the blow may be j^reater , and then a little more than its own wt ii^ht will siitfiee 
to bring; out the shake clearly . It should also be remeinbired that when [Mree i^, , in 
ployed, stiffness follows; a proot df what 1 ad\ance, namely, that men with I li.- >if' Mjrth 
of a Hercules have lieen unable to ac(|nire a g;ood shake on the Viuliii, wliile exiren. ly 
delicate women ha\e been ku.iwn to perform it most bea'utifull ; which shows ^' .1 the 
'merit of the shake depends, as I ha\e already observed, on a perpendicular |)re--iiir, on 
. ijiialitN , and on ajjiiity of finj^er, and but \ery little on force. 

97*« 



y^7 



This, then, is my firm convictuin rHspectiiijr the shake, vhiili v^ ill itoiibtle.^-s mt-et with 
many opponents, but that will not cause me to ehany;e my opinion , nor prevent my ]irao- 
tisin^ the shake according to the prinnplt": here iriTeoiivhileiLhivd not theg(iat in my iinji;ers. 
As 1 have already spoken of the shake, in the Chapter On the Pnsitioji of the Hand, 
I beg that it may be again referred to, in order to save needless repetition in this place. 

The following is the first shake which I propose as an exercise . The finger marked be- 
low the large note is that which must remain firmly pressed on the string, while the figure 

placed immediately above the small note indicates the finger which is to beat the shake. 
Adagio.^ 

^ i.^ " \ ^ ^ i" h ^^ ^ ^ 

n^. — n 1 '' --'^ ( 

KXAMPL K . 



^ /r 



/r 



^ 



-+- 



-s- 












^ 



i 



3 



This shake has the advantage of exercising all the fingers, and it should be practised 
on all four strings . 

J Nearly all the shakes on the lower part of the neck, are made with the fourth or littli^- 
finger:it is only in the first position that they can be made -with the second finger, in minor 
keys.and vvith the third, in major, because the tnrn of these is made by nsing the open string. 



KXA MPL E 



w 



In A Minnr. 



1 



m 



In A Major. 

-^^ — . — Q- 



I 



The same thing occurs on the other three strings; but in all other positions the fourth 
finger is used . 



Shak'- -with tbPlc:.j' r spi-i n.t, 



ak'' -with tbPic:._[' r spi-( ri.t, jO ^ 

,..,ap villi th.- 4'.'' fin.r'-r. - ^ (* } 



C M:^j"r. 
l^-.t Strin< 



+ 



\/r g 



F Maj.ir. 
and 



f ^^ i 'O . " 



" I- ■ 



2"." Strin;c. -J- ^ 



2 ] ^ ^ J 

Shakes with the minor second are more difficult, because the fourth finger lias t<> make 

the beats by itself, without the assistance of the third finger which must remain firm 

\\ jiressed on the string . They require, therefore, much patience and perseverance in 

practising them , There are some persons who play very well, but who never make a 

shake, being fully pesnaded it would be impossible for them to do so; I think, In >wc\rr, 

that they have wanted patience, rather than ability, for every one may acquireit.it 

974fi 



I2S 

it 111- prcijterly studied . For example, to perfo'rm the fdllowinjjj shakes with the 
iiUMor second, if the third finger be not placed c{nite per])eiidicularly on the sfniiir 
and very near the nail , it canncit be pniperly nmndt-d, and fonst-qiientlv the littl. (in 
ger, being kept so far from the string, finds great difficnlty in reaching it.and thern 
fore cannot make the beats of the shake . 



Shdke with the Minor Seccirid 

In C Min<ir. 

First String. 



Shrike with the Min.ir Seciuid. 
In F Minor. 
Seeond String. 



^S 



s 



M 



V /r 



^S 



n 



41 

-0- 



^ 






The shakes in E major and E minor, (m the first string, are perhaps the most iliffi- 
cnlt on the ViolonceUo, because the hand is placed against that part of the neck which 
joins the body of the instrument; and if the neck is short, they become very fatiguing. 



Shrike in E Majur 
First string. 

Shrike in K Min'tr 
First String. 



A 



m 



f 



EXAMPLES . 

2i_ 



^ 



2 1 






3S 



2 

\ h- 



^ 



35 



3 1 



I shall not give examples of all the shakes, for those who desire to exercise them- 
selves, shonld make them on all the strings and in every position , 

When once the thumb is brought into nse, most of the shakes are made with 
the second finger, because the thumb is nearly always ])laced on the tonic, as we ha\e 
before seen . For example, let the thumb be placed on G and C, and we shall ha\e the 
Concluding shakes in the keys of G and C . 

EXAMPLES. 

Concluding Shake in G. 



7) <? t7 V 




? 



Ciuicluding Shake in C ^ ' \ W ^* 




IJ: a. 



m 



97t-fi 



As all stiitk'-s are not cnncltidinji; uiK-s,it ti'il(i\-vs that some may have to be made 
with the third finger . I shall now gi\e a passay;e which very often occnrs , where 
shakes with the third finder are snfficiently frequent to prove that we shmild net 
nejjlect to practise them .We remain in the same position throughout , taking care to 
keep the thumb. quite firm in its place. 



K X A M p L F. . 




m 



u 



/r S 



tr S 



s: 



-^^^V 



0-^0 




S 



3 2 T^ 



:s^ 



t; 



The foregoing remarks must suffice to give an idea of this study . The shake 
mast by no means be neglected; indeed, it ought to be practised with all the fin- 
gers , for nothing can impart to them greater lightness, agiiity and precision. 

There is still another kind (if shake, called the bmken or interrupted shake, of 
which the fdllowinging is an example . 



Interrupted Shake 



■^ 



*' /r 



h- 



P 



js=: 



Ir 



2 1 



^ 



^^ 



,lr_ ^ fr 



\/r 






I \ 



2 1 



'* d 



=5?= 



«> 1 ' » 



'^k-^ Hh- 



2 1 



_^ 
/r 



-v 



[ ( - ^^ FT 2-^ 4^ 



^ 



-i»-^ 



^ 



+ 

There are, besides, many little embellishments, as the pince, dimi - ciTclt . tmiH 
K\Uiirifi de cercle , and others, the names of which are scarcely known to me, since 
they change with fashion, like trinkets . I shall not here treat of them, as they will 
be found perfectly easy by those who are able tn make the shake well : but there is 
one thing of great importance which I must not forget to menticHi , w hie h is,th.it, in 
perfnrminji; the .-,hake, the hand mii,-,t iidt make ajiy movemei:t;it is only the finger or 
filiger;^ used :,\ making the heat-T \'.-h;ch should rise ani! tali . I ha--,- yee!i many pier- 
sons shake Mith the wrist, but this is not a true shake, it is a mere tremhliog, which is 
ordinarily a result of stiiriiess in trying to plav with force . 

N.B.All the examples given in this chapter should h^ pi-rformed very slnwly, for 
the poirpose of making the shakes ven' long. 



Th.'sH are namps i>f ,ntiqiL-ite'l Fc-nch emhoUishineiits of which n'» .l.-.'^-ription has h,-en ifiTen hy ..ur inn^i'-^i I'-x- 
•' -i raphers, excppt i.f plncv, which Rnussea.u alime txpliiins, and which ^--ems t.i corre^piinj to the old eirt:' Ilir-lnii'Mit o .0' ■' 



tso 



CHAPTER XIV. 

ON THE NECESSITY OF PROVING THE UNISONS 
AND OCTAVES BY THE OPEN STRINGS. 



It will scarcely be believed how requisite it is to examine from time to time, 
while stndying; , whether we are in tnne with the open strings, which must be done by 
proving the unisons and octaves by them; this must by no means be disregarded . For 
myself, who in this place am dictating to others, I have no hesitation in saying that, 
if a strange Violoncello were placed in my hands, I would wager that the first sounds 

which I should draw from it would be false . I tune it, if necessary, I then pro\e 

the unisons and octaves in all the positions, and after this operation, which gives me 

a knowledge of the finger-board, I play on it as little out of tune as possible . 

Here follows an idea of the way in which this is practised. 
In the first position, we have only three octaves. 



l^* EXAMPLE 

First Position . 



4 



-21 



g . ^ \ J 



-9- 





I 



In the second position, there are three unisons and three octaves 



2".'* EXAMPLE 

Second Position. 



-er 



t 



^m 



^ 



I 



The next example is of the same kind as the preceding, and will serve to give 
greater certainty to the hand . 

2| , 2| c, „ 2 2 



3''l' example 
Second Position. 



^ 



i"ij»j ^ 



T»- 






^s 






7=^ 



r±r 



4 I !4 

'u lo 



w 



4 



m 



i 



2, 2| „ 21 2 



? 






9=^ 



^ 



14 



0- 14. -^ \4- 
* O 

974fi 



*^ 



^ 



III this sePtind piiNitioil, in the key «t' C Dliimr , there are only three (]rtit\es ;iriil 

DO niiisdii . 



SLOWLY . 



t^ V K X A M P L K . >^ U' ' _T 



^ 1^ 






i — ^-s- 



-0- 



m * 



i i i i - 



^3 



01 






111 the third position, there are three unisons diid three octa\es, both in unajor ami 
in minor keys . We will bejrin with the major. 

1 L ii i 1 ' 



;th 



5'^ FXA MPLK. 

3>-:' Position. (^- 2 
J) major . 



£ 



^^'1 .2l • o; 1 t I oi 1 



3 



t| 4 1 



1 — r 



^ 



O' l2 



I g ^ ^ — 

o\ |2 ■*" 



^ 



«'.*> KXA>fPLE. 

S--;' Position. (^- 1 'i! 
1) minor. 



' Jti oi 1 



' ^ I I ' \ * , * ■ \ ^ ' 



H* ! r- 



5 



0' 13 



0| ,3 -*^ 3 



12 -5^ 


4 1 I 1 



:?# J 



-5^ 
o 



In the fourth position, there are iiiil_, tl'ree unisons, taken with the first fiii^'er . 



F. X A M PL K . 

4t.h Position. 



w 



1 



The above will suffice to assnre ns that we have taken the positions perf ■; tly true; 
I do not here speak of fractions of the ]iositioiis. of which meiiti'i; uill be made far- 
ther on . Where there is no open string;, do pirr.of can be made; h'sides , whin ■sve 
begin to p!iy on an iiistriTinent, we shnulil re-ma'.n a ronsid'-rabl.' tiiio- in the np.-n ktss, 
to ainpiire a true iiitonftion . I caiinut hr-lp styiiijj; in th;-- place, Hjat there are loai^'v 
persons who, when requested to proie the unisons and octaves by the open strings, in 
order to ascertain whether they are plavinu; too sharp or too f lat . at once lay hold of 
the pej/s ;<nd beiiin tuning-, but, in this case, the fingers are far more fr.((uen'" I , ir; 
erior, than the pegs . It we wi>,h to plav with a just intonatinn , we mu>t tir^t j nt 

ill- iii-^trument niceh m tune, then lisieii attentively to our performance and, armiii;^ ..nr 

-. Kes with patience, eriticise jt with rigid seventv . 

9746 



132 

CH A PTE R XV. 



OBSERVATIONS ON THE MANNER OF TUNING 
THE INSTRUMENT. 



To know how to tune, is a matter of more importance -than is generally believed. 
A Violin requires to be tuned much oftener than a Violoncello, because its first string 
is very delicate and frequently breaks; while the four strings of the Violoncello are very 
strong and rarely snap; neither do they alter much, after they have once attained their 
tension . In taking the pitch from another instrument we must first carefully observe 
whether our A is too sharp or too flat, and in either case, whether it is much or little : 
we most then turn the pegs only as much as is necessary, for if we continue to move 
them to and fro, we shall be obliged to tune very frequently; while if we merely raise 
or lower the string as much as is really required, the instrument will remain a long 
time in tune . There is one thing which it is very difficult to avoid, namely, taking 
the A too sharp ; the reason of which may perhaps be, the desire of hearing it dis- 
tinctly . For example, when the A is taken by one Violin from another, and by one 
Violoncello from another , the moment of being exactly in tune is that wherein the 
string ribrating precisely in unison with the one from which the pitch was taken, indu- 
ces the belief that only the latter is heard, which kind of illusion is very difficult to 
guard against: the bow is then pressed more heavily on the string, the peg twisted about, 
and the exact point of tuning missed . This is so true, that if eighty musicians WVre 
to take the A one from another, in regular succession, and the tuning of the first were 
to be compared with that of the last, the pitch would be found to have risen at least 
a quarter of a tone . This is an experiment which I have many times seen made by well 
organised musicians, and always with the same result : in short, su})posiiig that ten, 
out of the eighty, have taken the pitch accurately ; yet the least variation repeated se- 
venty times by the others produces a considerable difference; and hence the reason, why, 
in a well ordered orchestra, the principal Violinist gives the A to all the performers, 
one after another . But even this does not prevent those who have the failing of turn- 
ing the pegs about from tuning again directly ; and thus half the time occupied at a 

concert is spent in tuning the instruments an insufferable annoyance, which cannot 

be too loudly declaimed against . 



97,46 



li.H 



In regard to tnninja; the four strings, -whenever it is done with furre and the%i- 
brations of the strings are not listened to, -we cannot be sare of bt-ittg iiict-ly in tiiii<-,- 
for, if we take an instrnment perfectly toned and press the bow more heav\ly on the 
first string than on the second, the first will appear too sharp; the reason of m hioh 
is, that the weight of the bow will have increased the tension of that string. This 
may possibly explain why many persons, to whom an instrument may be presented as 
perfectly in tune as it can be, yet cannot help turning the four pegs abont .bc-fore tht-y 
begin to play ou it, Bnt if the bow be passed lightly across the two strings, and then 
taken off in order clearly to hear their vjbrations, we can scarcely fail in tuning correct- 
ly . lu general, those who occupy the most time in tuning are the least perfectly in tune. 

An(tther thing which it is not useless to observe here, is: that when the distance 
from the pitch is considerable, as a semitone or three quarters of atone too sharp, it 
would be futile to endeavour to take the A perfectly true; for, in lowering the other 
three strings the pitch of A will be raised nearly half a quarter -tone, The reason of 
this is obvious; for the tension being made on the tail -piece by the four strings, in It-ttiny; 
down the three louver ones, the equilibrium is restored, and the first string thenliy ac- 
quires a little more tension, than it had before the others were slackened . It is the 
same, if the pitch of the instrnment be much too low and the A taken quite true; for 
then,in drawing up the other three strings, the equilibrium is restored, and their ten- 
sion relieving the strain on the first, it becomes too low . This might be demonstra- 
ted mathematically, by commas and fractions of commas, even as we demonstrate that 
two and two make four; it is the effect of the balance [of the tension on the tail 
fjiecej]. The method of avoiding the above inconvenience is, to lower all four strings in 
succession , as near to the pitch as possible, and afterwards to take the A. If this 
precaution be not taken, a player would be unbearable, when engaged in an orches- 
tra: for, were the before-named circumstance added, in evtr so slight a degree.to the 
fault of constantly turniniC the pegs about, he would not lie in tune in half an hour. 
From this it appears,, that bad tnniny; results, m most cases, less from a defective ear, 
than from a fault}' mode of proceedinjr . 



9746 



^■^^ CH APTER XVI 



OF VIBRATIONS AND THEIR COALITION 



Tlif siibjtTt of tlii- rimjter is, I fear, beyond my powers; for, in (irder to trciit it 
(uiiy, a knowledge of natural philosophy and mathematics is rei{iiired, while I siaiply 
understand music .But so thoroughly covinced am 1, that an acquaintance "Vkith the 
relation existing bet\*een the \ibrations is necessary for obtaining a true intonation aii(l 
producing a pure tone , that I shall now state what I myself have learnt throujrh a 
long familiarity with the four strings of the Violoncello, and endeavour to demon - 
strate, or rather, to make evident to any one who may place his fingers on that in- 
strument, whether the sounds which he produces are true or false . In pursuance of 
this object, I shall carefully abstain from employing scientific terms, lest in the end 
I should become even unintelligible to myself . I shall try to speak like a musician 
to musicians; and if this sketch should only induce one thoroughly acquainted with 
the subject to re-write the whole, in a way still more serviceable to our art, I crust 
that 1 shall at least have effected some good: and this thought encourages me. 

Let us begin with the knowledge of unisons, and take Ct on the fourth string with the 
seciuid fmger . 



K X 4 M P L K . 



Let the bow touch this G on the fourth string only, and you will then see the 
third string, G, vibrate throughout its length . 

Now take, in a similar manner, the Don the third string, as indicated in the next 
example, and you will perceive the second string, D, vibrate throughout its length, which 
produces the same effect . 

2".^ f ina;pr . 



w 



KXAMPLK . V— -° O 



Lastly, take A on the second stritiy. with the secinni tini;; r , -iiid still the sanu 
effect will be produced . 



K X A M P L K 



2'V' f nm'.T , 



Here, then, are two resonances, although only one string is touched . Uepeat the 

experiqient on the three striiij^s. one after the other, as you did before, and each 

time stop with another fitiirtr the open striMji; which has given the unison, and > on 

v^ill hear that the string on which \«iu are plavinj^ ])roduces one res(tnance, lts> pr(doM;; 

9746 



I:i5 

fil and full : this is already somethiug in regard tn miality nt tone . Let tis nnwtx 
amine it in respect to justness id intonation, by repeating the same operation and ])!.< 
ciiig the second finger on the Gr of the fourth string, abont a comma too sharp Drtun 
flat, for it is well to know that, if the finger be not ton fur distant from the trne pitch, 
the unison 'vdll still resound, althongh rather morr feebly. Now place the second fin- 
ger on the fourth string, a comma too flat, and ('ra^- the bow strong! across thi-- string; 
then take it off and listen to the \ibratioDs" of both strings, and }(iii will hear a 
false and disagreeable sound, which arises from these \ibratinns nut being isiW-hm- 
notis . If this experiment be made in a large and sonorous room, the effect nhU be 
horrible; 'while, if we place our finger exactly true, the two resonances will perfectly 
coalesce and produce a superb sound . The same effect "will result in the case of 
the two other unisons . 

These are the three natural unisons which we have on the A ioloncello, but the re- 
lations of the vibrations are far more extended; this is what 1 shall now endeavour 
to make audible, and even visible, if that can be done . It may not be useless to re- 
mark that, of all the consonances, the unison is the most difficult to take perfectly 
true We will begin ■svith the fourth string. C, because the graver the sounds, the more 
sensible and prolonged are their vibrations- therefore, let us see what are the differ- 
ent vibrations of this fourth string . 

We have seen, in the Chapter on Harmonics, that they arise in the order of the 
octave 12*.'', 15^^, 17t,-,19f.f' and 22".". which is the triple octave . I must beg the reailer 
to glance through that chapter again, if it is not fresh in his memory, as he will 
there see that the distances which produce the harmonics are really the different 
points of vibration of the string . To demonstrate this clearly, I "vdll "WTite the C of 
the fourth string as a semibreve, and indicate the different points of vibration by dots. 



22*A . _0_ 
\B^. . -*- 

17*h . _^ 

15<.h . ^ 



vit*^ 






S^". . * - 



Triple Octave 

Double Octave .if the Fifth. 
Double Octave ..f the Third. 
D.iuble Octave 
-©vtave of the Titih. 



-©"tave 



C - 4'.'' Striiii-. Open n.te 

In order to assure ourselves that these are the true points of vibration of this 
C string, let us play each of them separateK on the other strings, beginning with 
the octave, and so on in succession; and this fourth string, by its vibration , must each 
time gi\e out the same sonnds as those which we draw from another string . 



974iS 



' 'I'ake the following C, on the third strinjr.with the second finjrer 



V!"." t'iiii-.T. 



»*.*• i.r Octa\e 



M 



Draw the bow firmly and then take it off, and you will botli hear and see the 
two striiurs vit)rate, namely, the third striiijr on which you are playinjr, and the fourth* 
string by its octave. To make quite sure of this fact, begin again, and as soon as 
yoa have taken off the bow, stop the \ibration of the third string, and you Mill still 
hear the same sound coTitinued for some time by the vibration of the fourth string . 
If yoa doubt this, try again, and after taking off the bow, stop the \ibration of both 
strings, and you will not hear anything . It should be observed, that it is not the low C 
of the open string which is heard, hut its octaveTwhich is the unison of the C that is 
drawn from the third string. Lastly, if you will begin once more and observe the C_ 
string attentively, you will see that it vibrates in two parts, as in this figure . 



Let us anw pass on to the ts\t If t!i , which is the following G: 

2";' finjfrr . 

Vi^l' or Octave of the Fifth . 



M 






Take this G on the third string , with the second finger, draw the bow, and yon 
will see the fourth string vibrate; stop the vibration of the third string, after yon 
have drawn the bow across it, and you will still hear the same sound continued 
for some time by the \ibration of the fourth string. By attentively observMig the 
vibration of this fourth string, you will see that it divides itself into three parts, 
as in the following figure : 



Here, then, a second point of vibration is determined . This ex])eriment pro\es that 
the fourth string vibrates by its twelfth, which is the unison of the G just made on 



2 137 

the third strinjr . Jt ymi takt- the same G ^ nu the second striuji",\vith ih- 

.secitnd fiiijrt-r. ytiii \i"ill ha\e iJtit' resonance more than in the precedinjr experiment; tn- 
caiise, independently nf th^- fourth stnujf.C, which ■■^ill resound by its twelfth, the ttml 
strin)^, G, will resound by its octave. In this case, therefore, three strings enteriiito\i 
bration to g\\f the same sound, which renders it very fnll and harmonious . 

The fifteenth, or double octave, is the C foliowiuyj: 



ISt."* ,ir double Octave . 



w 



Take this C CD the first s-truiij, draw the bow, and the fourth strinjr will vil)rate 
by its double octave. In this case it vrill vibrate in four equal parts; but it will not 
he so easy to see these vibrations, as in the tvm preceding experiments, although they 
can be quite as well heard . If you stop the vibration of the first string. you will 
still hear the same sound continued by the vibration of the fourth; and if you 
take this same C either on the sf i.nd , or on the third string, the same effect 
will be produced . 

The seventeenth is the E f<dlowiug : 
17'.'' or double Octave 



of the Third. ^^ 



Take this E on the first string, draw the bow, and the fourth string will \ibrate 
by its seventeenth, dividing itself into five equal parts . If you stop the \ ilinit mn of 
the first striiiir, you will still hear the same sound continued by the vibration .if 
the fourth; and if you take this same E either on the second, or on the third >tririg, 
the same effect will !)e proiliK'f-.| . 

The nineteenth is the H I m| Inu in;j : 



ly'.'' . r double OrtHN. 

of tho F'tth 



m 



Tiki-' ■'li <T ,'i ihe tirr,t itniijr, draw the hnw. and the fourth strinj;; will disiile 
if-.r-'i nitii MX equal part:^ an. I \ibrate bv its nineteenth . It must be obser\ed that 
v !■ here cibtain thiee rr--.iuiaiu e.s fnr one sioind ; for, the first string \iIiraVes by the 
tone G whi'-h w.^ drisr fr'im <A : • h^- fmirth vibrates by its nineteenth ; and the thir'l 

9T+n 



lis 



striiij;;, wliicfi is G, vihrates by its double octaM- • 'I'liis. t fu-ii, seems to me tn be the 
riastiii why this tone is very sonorous and [jrolonjri-d , ^^hl■n it is taken (|uite trin' ; 
hilt when the finger is not put very exactly in the place where it oiijrht to be, the 
soiind will bf extinct as soon as the bow leaves the striiiir . If we take this same 
Ci on the second string, the same effect will be produced . 

The twenty second is the C following r 



'^'^"■.' nr triple Octave . 



P 



Take this C on the first string, and the fourth will divide itself_into eight, 
equal parts and vibrate by its twenty- second . This vibration is indeed much more 
feeble than those in the preceding experiments, and the reason of it seems to be, 
that the string dividing itself into so many short parts, the vibrations become less 
sensible to the ear . However, on a good instrument that is well strung, this reso-. 
nance may still be heard . 

We have already found several sounds which have many resonances . 
They are.the following: 



Octave 



]2V 



th 



15 



th 



7th 



m 



i 



19'." 



'Z2']'i 



ISC 



I 



2 Rekonances . 



3 Rpsimances. 2 ResnnaiicBS. % Resonitnfes. 3 Resonai 



2 RescmanceK- 



Let as now analyse the vibrations of the third string, G . 

22".'*....^ Triple Oetare . 

I9'h __j»_ DniihU- Oft.nc iif the Fitih. 

IT*!" £. Douhh' Octare iif the ThirJ 

IS'.**. .. D.iuhle Ootare. 

J^ 12'." * Oeta T e c,f ) he :^if th . 

m 8'.''... » ....". Octa . e. 

■C5- 

G. S"^ StiHi.!. Ofien nu(e. 

8<."..r Octave - q 

of the G strintr. ^) Q 

We have already had this sound in the analysis of the vibratiitns o! the fourth 
stniri;. of which it is the twelfth, and have found that it has three resonances . 



9746 



The tu.-lfth is the I) tnlluu iny;: 

_ D 

12♦^ of the Ct striiiji; . 



/,V.4 



m 



Takt* this D (III the first strin^r, and V(ui will both see mul hear thi- third ^triiij; 
vibritte by its twelfth, in three equal parts . It must he .ihsersed , that tliis same I) 
makes the second strinjj;, 1), \ihrate by its octave, that is, in ts^o etjciai parts. Here, 
then, we ha\e also three resniiaiices for this sound . If we take the same D on the 
second striiiy;. there will onlv be two resonances , namely • that of the second strinjr it- 
self, and that of the twelfth of the tliird strinj^ . 



1.5*.*^ of ihe G striniT 



The fifteeutn is the (t follow iiijr: 



G 



He have already had this sniirid \<.: the analysis of the fourth string, of which it is 
the iiiiuteenth, and h,-- fmnd that it has three resonances. 



17']' of the Gr strin 



The Seventeenth is the B fotlovnn^: 

mm 



B 

o 



Take This B OQ the first string; , and the third stnntr will \ibrate by it., se- 
veiitrenth, in five equal parts , If we take this same B on the second strinjr, we 
■^hall obtain the same effect . 

The nilRleentii is it'- (1 foliowiniT: 

D 



l-i'.^ ot the G struijr . 



Take this D on th.- (irsf strniti:. and yu\ -.mII hear three resonances: /V 'hat of 
the first strinji- itself; 21' iti.at of the third -■■rain wh'fh Mbr.ite^ by i' iiitiet, en th- 
in -ix e(|iial parts.; and .^''1^' th,<i (d i (■ ■ .erond siiuiir I), which \ili'ates In it-, dnuMe 

ncliv ■. Ill four e(aial Ijt-r'.- 

974.6 



MO 



The tweiity-secdiul is the G folldw'ing 



iJ2".' of the G string . 



m 



Take this G on the first striiiir ami the third will \ibrate by its twenty — seconft, 
ill eight equal parts . This vihr.itinii is weaker than the others . 

Here again we have fonnri st-it-rt! soands which have many resonances . 

th ''^^"'' 

.Ir-Adv fn„n.(. I^V' _ • _5-5_ -iii2- 



m 



3 ReMiriciiiCPs . 3 R psiiu.itu'-'s 3 Re*icmancp?^ . 2 Rpsnnaiu-Ps. 3 ResnnancHs . 2 R i-sniianceN . 

We will now analyse the vibrations of the D string ; but only as far as the se 
venteenth , the others bung too acute. 

17!'?.. . % Jf_ Dcmhle Oytarr nf the Third . 

15''?... Diilihle Octav,.. 



VI 



th 



. O.taT.. of the Fifth. 



p 



^^. 



D 2". String. Open note. 



,8*.'' or Octave 
of the D string. 



m 



We have already had this sound in the analysis of the third string, of which it 
is the twelfth, and it has given os three resonances . 



\l^)^ of the D string 



The twelfth is the A following 



Take this A on the first stii.-g and the second yr\\\ vibrate by its twelfth, in 
three equal parts . 

The fifteenth is the D following: 

.2. 



IS^.h of the 1) string 



^ 



« D 

We ha\e already had this sound in the analv'sis if the third string, of which it 
is the nintt renth, and it has gi\eii us three resonances . 

974.fi 



The seventeenth is the F' sharp t ol Inwiiijr: 



141 



17'.'' ,if 111.. D fctriiiiT . 



p 



F Sharp . 

Tnke this F sharp on the first stritur, and the second will vibrate by its seventeenth, in 
five e({\ial parts . Here, again, v\"e have found two more souinls.each of ^\'hich has two resonan- 



ces 



8*.'' Hlr.-^.iv f.iiind. 



12 ♦.h 



15' h 
2. 



17 th 



o 



S R fS'Mia.ncps . 2 R «".>'(] ;tnf 



3 Rpsniianres. 2 Rpsn nances. 



TABLE OF THE SOUNDS WHICH HAVE SEVERAL 
PERCEPTIBLE RESONANCES . 



/r»^- 




1 r ■ =^ 




1<Z>. 




r^ 




V_, ■ 


CT 










1 














r 








2 Ris 


iiian._-es 


2 Rp»..,u.t,i..p.- 


2 Rp>..iinncps 


H it,... :, 








By thr 


uniMiii 


Bt thp iict.cr". 


By thp unison 


By the . ..I.iv.- of th 


■ G^t^ing 






..f th- 


G sti-iii^. 


"f thp C sti-iiijT. 

1 


nf thp t) string. 


1 ,.: 1 M'. 12'." ■ f H:.. 

1 


C vlrin?. 





© 




i: .-. 


t3 


\\J. 




1 










fi 


1 








y. 






2 Rpsnriancp> 
By the uniboii 
I'f the A striiijC. 


2 RpsollauCPl* 

By th.' d..Ti/>i,. octavi! 
or 15'." of thp C i-trimr. 

1 


.S Rpr-oil.inCPS 

By thp 8'.^ of thp D>trma: 
and thp 12'i' of the G string 


2 RpsiMianCPs 

By the 17'.'> 

of th- C string'. 







a 


■^3- 


-^i- 








/ 




1 


rt^ 








) 






V 


J 




' 


*/ 












1 


.S Rps 


iiianL-PS 


2 R PSOtl;iriPPS 


2 RPSOMHUPPS 


2 R psonatipps 




By thp 1.5*1' 


of thp G strinic 


By tlo- 'l'^'.'' 


By thp n'h 


By thp trijjlp oPtavp 




jand thp 19'.'' 


if iW C s-triiiiT. 


nf thp D string. 


of the G string'. 


of the C strill;r. 


__ 1 



r 










>' 




' 


■ yf 






ffl) 






vy 






•7 










; 


.S Hps 


'U.inpps 


2 Rpsonaneps 


2 Resonanpps, 


1 R.v 


Ihp 1.5*." 


.f thp 0>trintr 


By thp 17'.'' 


By the triple o'tavp 


Old 


thp 19'.'' 


if the C strin^- 


of thp D striui'. 


or 22';'' f ihp G -.triiiif. 1 


1 — 


- 


1 


1 


1 



'^748 



142 

HtTf lollow sevtral srales. Hy playiiiji; that of fj.oii the st^ooiid strinjj;, wr m i\ nl) 
serve all the soands which arc siisceplihit; of coalition of vihratioii . 



Fihu-iTiiiy; . 
4 



SC A L K nH . 4" I 

n th- 2".'' StrinkC. - y ■ ^ I -— = 



33: 



1 

331 



ii 



.1 



I 



1 Re 



3 Ri(«in; 2 ReHuii: 2ReHi)ii: 1 Resiin: S U. 



8 C A L K 



SC ALK 

"f G Major 
Mil the I'-.t String-. 



Fing'enng'. 

n 2 


1 


3 


1 


2 


1 


2 


,-i 

-e- 


J/ 




t3 ■ 










11 


/T <^ 














II 


rh 














11 


W 














.11 



SCALK 

»f D M.,jnr 
the l^t- string. W 

•^ 3 R 



m 



2 HeNnnanees ; 3 Rei><m: 2 Resdii: I Resoti: 3 Riscm; 2 ReMin: 2 ReKon; 2ReMiii: 

1 2 3 

Fingering^. a I 2 ' .©. .C 

4 J ^^ _0_ ~ 



I 



2 



esonanccs. 2 Reson; 1 Resuii: 3 Resim: 2 Risum: 2 Rcs.jii: I Resnii: 3 Resun.- 

2 3 

Fingering. ,2 

4- J^ C 



«ij. i^ 



1 



3 ReN<inanoes. 2 Resoii: 2 Refrun: 2 Resiiu: .3 Resou: I Resnii; S.Reson: 2 RpKon: 



I should not speak of the coalition of vibrations, if I regarded it merely as an ob- 
ject of curio.sity; bnt I believe that a knowlede of it is of the jrreatest utility in ac- 
quirinjr a just intonation and producing a ])ure tone: for, if the finger be not pot ex- 
actly in the right place, there will neither be a double nor a triple resonance. It 
is also necessary, that the string on v\^hich we play be taken with the bow in such 
a manner that it may vibrate very clearly and equally . To accomplish this, the bow 
must be drawn or poshed in a perfectly straight line, and with the greatest equality 
of force or lightness, or with a gradual augmentation or diminution of the pressure; 
for if it moves by jerks, the vibrations coming in contact with one another will lose 
all their clearness, and only disagreeable sounds will be obtained . It is certain that 
this coalition renders the sounds which it produces, more full, sonorous and agreea- 
ble; the vibrations, as it were, mutually assisting one another . Of this, I shall now 
endeavour to adduce an evident proof . 

There are two sounds on the Violoncello, the vibration of which is very harsh, and 
none but perfect instruments are without this defect . These two sounds are the fol- 
lowing E and F, on the second string . 



W 



^ 



These two notes are very coarse and harsh on many Violoncellos, the cause of which 
must certainly arise from the vibrations of the string being bad or unequal . But if the 
lower octave of these notes be taken by another finger on the fourth string, as indi- 
cated below, the second string will be found to vibrate very well, and will produce a 

'-"oorous and agreeable sound . 

9746 



143 



Tike the E oti the sfcotid .striiij;; with the first fin^rer, aud place the third mi 
the K (if the fourth struijr, as follows: 



EX A M P L K . 



w 



^^ 



3 ■ 

Press the strinjrs very firmlv ^nth the first and third fingers, and when you are 

cert.iiri that they are exartly iti the rig;ht places, draw the how across the secoihd 
striiii;- only, and yoa will find that it "will render a sound much more full aud so- 
norous than when the upper J] alone was played . The reason nf this is , that the 
fourth strinj;; \il)rates also by the octave of the E on which the third finder is placed. 
Here, thelitis a coalition of vibrations as clearlv proved as those which produce the open 
notesjand it a|)|jears to me beyond ail <l(iubt, that the vibrations of the foarth striuj;; 
as^i^t those of the second, and by this means so greatly inn.ro\e them. 

The same occurs Mith the F of the second string, which, on a great uiauy Vmlou- 
cellos, is \ery bad . Take this Y with the second finger, and its lower octave on the 
lourlh >(niig with the fourth finger, as follows; 

21 



m 



^ 

4 
aU'i \^ hv-ii ^ ou ha\e assured your.-elf that b(vth fingers are properly placed, draw the 
bow acro^- the second string only, and the same effect -svill result . 

I mereK mention these two coalitions of nbrations to pro\e that the vibrations as- 
sist each other, as it were; for the above two examples, can rarely be pat in practice . 

There are many other interesting things to be said on the subject of this chapter, 
but I shall simply confine myself to the object I have in ^iew; which is, to seek, 
as miich as possible, the means of obtaining a true intonation , and of drawing a pure 
tone from the instrument . I vriW therefore suppose that I enter a room where a per- 
son is playing on the Violoncello, and that he has his thumb placed on the B flat of 
the first string and the E flat of the second, as in the following example . 



1 



Now, \*'ithnnt knowiriir whether the instrument is tnried too sharp or too flat, I 

974.6 



shall at (iiicf (lisfd'.tT, friuji the sounds produced, wht4 hi r (hat person plays m (mie ; 
/or nuless I hear the notes G, C, and D vibrate more freely than the rest, I shall say 
he plays falsely . To prove this, let as examine the scale of E flat . 



m 



-CJ_ 



i 



ini 



1 Resonanop - 1 Rpson : 3 ReNon : I Roson; 1 Resun : 2 Restm; 2 Resnii : I Rpsnn: 

The G has three resonances, the C tVo,\and the D two, whilst all the rest have only, 
one each; if, therefore, the G,C,and Dare taken correctly, they must of necessity product; 
a more full and sonorous sound than the others; and this cannot escape the observa - 
tion of a cultivated ear. By these notes, ttierefore, we must rejrulate our intonation in this 
position. .There are few positions in which these notes are ilot met with, and it is-, by them 
that the intonation must always be regulated ; unless, indeed, we are piaving in keys so 
stopped, that they contain no sounds related to the open strings and their points of vi- 
bration; but this is not the case in the open keys, which are most frequently used. From 

all this it results, that if we accustom ourselves carefully to listen to the different reso- 
nances occasioned by the vibrations, we shall acquire a certainty in playing in tune, and the 
quality of tone will assifredly derive from it considerable advantage . 



CH AFTER XVII. 



EXPLANATION OF THE DISTANCE AT WHICH THE FINGERS SHOULD BE PLACED 
FROM EACH OTHER, IN THE FIRST FOUR POSITIONS; AND THE PROOF OF 
THE UNITY OF THESE POSITIONS, BY COMPARING THE SBCOND, 
THIRD, AND FOURTH, WITH THE FIRST, IN ALL ITS RELATIONS. 



I have alreadji^ given the scales in all the major and minor keys; and this might be 
. sufficient for those who, in referring to authorities, say : they must be true, because such 
a one has published them. But all do not think alike; for there are some persons who 
are not afraid of application, but delight in investigat^ing things, and desire to ascet — 
tain, whether a principle laid dov*Ti as true, is really so in all its relations. For the 
satisfaction of such, therefore, I write what follows, and shall endeavour to conduct them 
friun one consequence to another, even up to conviction; and should I not succeed in my 
attempt, it will be ov^ing to my own faulty Explanation, as I am thoroughly convinced 
f^hii the principle which I seek to establish is true in all its bearings. 

974*; 



145 

'riure IS no doubt that, at first, the finjreriiijr mnst ha\e been adjusted arcordinji Ni 
the relation which subsists between the scale of the Violoncello, and the coin|i,i-- 
of the hand and length of the fingers . I know that there have been persons, aud 
that some, thongh very few, are still to be naet with,T\'ho wish to finger the Violon — 
cello in the same way as they finger the Violin; but the scale of the former beitig 
about twenty-six inches, ( I say a?)()ut, because the length varies a little among differ- 
ent instruments,) and that of the latter, twelve inches, it is easy to see, without taking line 
and rule to measure the distance ot the tones, that there i* a tMklldifftrenoehiitvttten'ithem; 
for twelve is less than the half of twenty- six, and it is also well known, that the octave 
is found in the middle of the length of the scale, or of the distended string, whether 
it is an inch or an ell long . Besides, the Violin is every -where fingered in a regu- 
lar manner, f(xr the simple reason that, being an ancient iiistit^iiulent, it has during the 
lapse of time been studied by skilful masters; but it is not so with the Violoncello, it 
having been preceded by another instrument, the Viol di Gramba,the scale of which is 
very similar; and as this instrument had long been very ably used, the new practitioners 
on the V^iiiliuuello might well have sought, in the principles of its fingering , suitable pro 
portions for the distance of the fingers between *jach other: but, as the Violoncello 
soon gained a complete ascendancy over the Viol and caused it to diappear from the 
orchestras, the players on the former instrument affected the most profound contempt 
for (he latter, and were so infatuated as to determine, notwithstanding the necessity 
of the case, not to adopt in their methinl of fingering anything which might bear 
a relation to that of the supplanted instrument . 

Besides, many persons who have found they could not succeed in playing the Vio- 
lin, have taken up the Violoncello and sought to adapt the fingering of their own 
instrument to it, which has carried the confusion to its utmost limit . The |)er— 
formers on the Viol di Gamba had their hand placed as it ought to be on the Vio- 
loncello, in the way which I have already described; the ends of their fingers fell quite 
perpendicularly on the strings, and were at the distance of a semitone from each o 
ther, as they should be on the fingerboard of the Violoncello, with the exceptiiui of 
the alternative of the first finger, the necei^sity of which I shall demonstrate in the 
succeeding examples. In short, it is evident there should be an analogy between the 
fingering of the Viol and that of the Violoncello , on account of the similarity of their 
scale; but a great differencp in the combination of th# fingers, because the Viol was 
tuned by fourths and thirds, and the Violoncello is tuned by fifths . 

The celebrated Bkrtead, who formed an epoch in the art, and whose reputation 
still subsists, may be considered as the creator of the Violoncello , It is to his les- 
sons that my elder brother is indebted for his rare talents, and for having carried 

974P 



I4fi 



the jjtirfectioii of this iristriunciit tar hfyond his master . This liftlt- 'uLijis on my 
In-other AV'ill, I doiiht not, he rea<lily pardoned : it is the expression i.f jrr;ilitnde,v\hi.h 
my relationship does frot excl>i<l<', nor caitse tne to forget that it is d* him I am indelit 
ed for the little I know . 

As to Bkrtkau, it is to be rejrretted that he has left us uothinjr of his principles, 
except by tradition » It is true that some of his ^holars have written methods for the 
instrument, but they are not very satisfactory : the principles of fingering in them are 
only glanced at, instead of being demonstrated; andrthis is tho Te»s<maw^y\-«yesn titf 
the present day, there are nearly as many ways of fingering as there are professors. 
Bkrtkau, however, had strongly felt the necessity of the fingers not being too far dis- 
tant, if they are to preserve their strength and perpendicular pressure; that the first 
might be extended from the second, bnt that the third could not be removed far from 
it without an effort and a loss of its perpendicular position : lastly, that the fourth or 
little finger is too short and weak to be extended from the third, from which it derives 
a portion of its strength, &c. 

It is, then, on the principles here stated, that the fingering of the Violoncello has Ijeen 
determined; and it has been settled that, between the first finger and the second, there 
may be, according to circumstances, an interval either of a tone or of a semitone;bMt that, 
ill all other cases, (except, indeed, in the very rare instance of the extensmn of the fourth 
finger, noticed in the chapter on Arpeggios,) there must not be a distance of more than 
a semitone either between the second and third fingers, or between the third and fourth, 
This is the principle \shich I shall miw endeavour to demonstrate ; and for this ])iirpose 
let us first take the scale of C uiajor.and we shall see that, in it, all the fingers are 
at the distance of a semitone from each other . 

ri ^, 2".' bljdnjr. I".* String 

«r-^ 



4'^ Sfriilg-. 



Str 



K K A V( (• L K . _: 



o 1 



3ZI 



:^=St 



•) 






;%i 







1 



If this example is not sufficiently convincing, the following will prove it as deeisive- 

Iv as the fact that twice one are two . 



K X A M P L E 



® 



iFSfft^ 



— l"t 



3 4 






s 



:!^ib»^ 



3 4 



T 2 3~T 



1 



The foHowing is a short v-;'.ssage f<ir jintting this truth in practice, as well as for 
strengthening the fourth finger and exercising it and the others . 




974*5 



N7 
Lt't US now try to aii+<Ivse the fir-'l jxisitioii, since it is from this and its vhimhi-, 

ic-lations that the other three posititins are drawn, which form the c(>m|)leu]eut of 
what we c\\\\ the fingerinjr of the neck; that is, from the lowest open note, C, to the 
fx.oiialjie first string, beyond tiich the little finger is not used . T^ie second, third and 
fciiirth positions oaght, theu,to be susceptible of comparison with the first, in all its 
fractions; and, if the relations are not perfectly true, there is no unity and the pi in - 
cipl.- I- false . 

1 find four fractions in the first position , which are here given, one after the te- 
ther, on all four strings-, comineiKiiig with the lowest . 

I-.' fViCli 2".'' Fraction . :<■".'' Frai'tion . +'." Fracti<.ii . 

4'!> String. ^P 



S^^^^^^^^^^W^ 



I ■' J 



I ^ '1 

2";' Fraction 



J ■' " J 

S"".'' Fracti.in. 



I "'= i 

4*.'' Fr..rti..n, 






I 3 4 1 2 4 I 2 4 1 I 2 4 " 1 3 4 | 2 4 12 4 j 2 4 

1^.^ ?'i-jcli..n. 2";' Fra.-ti S"";' f'ra.-l i"ii . +'.'' Frar-ti-i, 



string. ^vr'Tvr^r gg^ j 

li I3 '4 li ^2^ ^^iW^^r 



3 4 



-& 



2 4 li 



pgpfljg^ 



m- 



2 4 !| 2 '4 



Fraction, 2".'' Fr,u-ti.,ii . S'".'* Fraction . 4'.*' Fraction . 

^^f\..A^ 'n. A^\^-^^__^ ^^ikf^YY i f^r^f vY' 



I 



l\* string. 

1 3 4 1 2 4 ^1^2 4 J 2 * i^r^iT^l 2 4 J 2 4 1 2 4 

Eaih of these fractions occasions a ininfiiient, which we shall now see by taikihgearh 
fracticm separately. T shall analyse them by the first string, as Violoncello-players, 
are more accustomed to that string than to the others, and will therefore compre- . 
Iiciid iny iiicaning better . 



k 



First Frtction 



f ^f ^; 



2 k 1 

^ ^^ 



liiTi'. Wf iii'rreive that the second finger takes t^e place of the third, to permit 
till- ('ourlh finger which took D flat to ascend and finish with D natural .The fol- 
lowing is a passage which will serve tfi exercise the fingers in this particular, by pass 
ing in review this first fraction on all the four strings . 






* -^ 43 12 4 2 



I 




^5==3S: 



m 



4i \i^^*-i-^ 

974fi I 3 



14^ 



Sec(hi(l JVartitm. 






This is what I call the alternative of the first finj^er; for we here see that this 
finj^er, after taking the B flat, ascends a semitone to take the B natnral , and that 
without changing the place of the hand or of the other fingvrs in the least degree; 
for it is exclnsively the first which moves . This agrees with what I have already 
stated, that the first finger may be distant from the second either a tone or a se- 
mitone, according to <iircamstances . The above example illustrates both cases . 

We shall now give a kind of passage which, in exercising tbe first finger in this 
matter, passes in review this second fraction of the first position, on all the strinjjs. 



m 



}u 




* 2 J 2 * 2 2 



"6333 "^ l U 2 4^3 4 24 12 ^Tl "7 2 



w 



-Sn^ 



4I34 2 4 "^f 2' ^2' H'^2' *2 ' 2 

This example shows that only the first finger alternately changes its place, to be 
at one time at the distance of a tone from the second finger, and, at another, at that 
of a semitone ; but the other fingers remain always at the distance of a semitone from 
each other, as I have before observed . 



Third Fraction 



W 



S- 



A 



4 



% 



This is the same operation as that of the first fraction: the second finger taking 
the place of the third, in order that the fourth which took D natural may ascend and 
finish with the D sharp. The following passage passes in review the matter of this 
fraction, on all the strings . 



m 



r '\il f rlfTi f±ra;i ^. f_^. i ^> fjg 




974.8 J 



- 4- 



Fdiirth Fraction. 



w 



tf" 



^^ 



iri- 



149 



Here, the same operation takes place, as in the second fraction, whiph I have called the 
alternative of the first finger. This finger begins by taking the B natural, and then as- 
cends a semitone in order to take B sharp, while all the other fingers remain in theirplaces. 

Let ns now take the passage which passes in review the operation of the first finger 
in this fonrth fraction, on all the strings . 

* 2 2 



w r'rrr'tiTf 'nrtcfr i fe'r; ^^f i Wffl' i cfe% 




2 4 3 4- 24 12 







Z&JZ 



Thus, the first position is analysed and kiiosrn, under all its relations, Let us nowsee 
whether th.- other three positions are in strict acmrdance vith it. For this purjiose ,/I 
shall write on one stave the font fractions of the first position on the second string, 
as they have already been given, and, on another above it, the same notes an octavehigh- 
er, which will give the fonrth position on the first string. 

I'.* Fraction. Z".'^ Fraction. 3''.'' Fraction. 4-'.'' Fr.i.tir.n . 



4fl' Position. 
on the 1\* String 

H Position, 
on the 2".' String. 



W 



1 3 4 — i— a— ^r- 1 2 4 I ^ 41 1 a-tl e^ l l 8 4 — 1 ' ^ 4- A 



1\« Frant;,in. 



2":^ Fr^ctir 



S"*;' Fraction. 



4'.'i Fra<jtion. 



1 3 4 I3 4.l2-tl2*l 3 + \ 2*1 2 4 \ T* 



i 



This example shows that the same notes, in the same modes, are positively taken 
with the same finger . 

Thus, the fourth position is proved to be in strict accordance with the first; but, for 
the further confirmation of this trnth, we will now give the four passages which pass 
in review the four fractions on all four strings . I confess they are very monotoiious,and 
admit that I might easily have imparted rather more elegance to them; indeed I had 
eTeh done so, but/ 1 thought it better to sacrifice everything to etfearness ,and this deci- 
sHMi has obliged me to remodel the whole of this article . 

974fi 



/.50 



Kirht Kfacfidii 
of the +'.'' Positi^m 



M 



Mmmi 



in 4. 18 — ^ 



Passa{j;e of the 
*".* Fraction 

nf (hp 4'h Pi)sitin,i 



^: TffF'fefffffe^pfrr^'fn^fe. 



1, 3 I ■♦■ 3 



1 3 4j 



■hUmJ HM^d L^^^ ^w^l I 2 4 2 



3fo 



Second Fraction 
of thf 4*.*' Position, 



'^fc^: 



I 2 4 2 



I 84 IS —•jr- 



Passaiff nf the -7^ 

'/";' Fruction. - — 




.20 






^s 



i_,_a jtj_ 



#^ # r -0- 



5^ 



ifeCTiJiJ,^^ ^ 



S 



rfd* ' . 



! : # ' *vo*' +^ 



fh^I&E 



y + 5 -J 



2 42 



Third Fraction 
if the 4*.*^ Position 



: r fr rr F 



1 3 4 1 2 4 



I-*assaii;i- of the 



•i';' t'ractioii. 

13 . 43 



^^f-0f- t-lPt 


1 tf 




^fF 


'i 

i#^j# 


•* 3 


f-Vl0 


+ 2 






^ ■ 




- - — 




..iJ 


-»« 



I 2 



4 2 



I 3 



4 3 




Fourth Fraction 
of the 4^*' Position . 






"^ 



-8 — 4 1 S ^^ 



I 



Passajre of the 



Jt^A '^f:i.f:jLii^0,^tM.t0- ci^ 4 M 4 , 2 J, 4 



■*-0-f- 




0j^ 



4 34 



1 2 4 2 



ujj QU r[^ oD I jIj aj 



12 4 2 






^ 



ry^y 



£.4, .34 



V'» ' E# 



: . 0^0^ 0^0^ \ , 0^^000 \ uj0,J^0^j ~t0 

T74 T2 42 ^,2' 4 2 ' " 



ffc^ 



S*74'> 



/.)/. 



W.- \»ili ii<r,v trtk-f !ti< third pii>,it"Mii . H^-re, I shall Avrite the, faur fractionh ul ihi- 
fir-t jKoitidti on thn fnnrth striiii;;, as tht-y have already been '>ri\^ii; and, above them, 
(Ml aiKither stH\e, 1 shall indicate the same notes, two octaves hijrher, which will repre- 
sent, the third position on the first striii";. 



I^.' Pr^iictiiir, . 



KXAMPLK 

.S'.'i Position. 

On the l';*^ Stririic . 

l^'■ Position . 

On the 4*?' Striii);- . 



m 



bjL^f:^f:^*^^^bjt'^ 



¥' 



2".'l Fraction 



3'";^ Frictiun. 



■4"!' Frattiun. 



-4 3 4 18 4 



-4 B- 



4134I1 «4ia 4'is 4 la^H 



l^' Fr^Lti'-Mi. 



2";' Fractinn. 3C"i Fraeti.,n. 



4'.''FraL-ti..n. 



^i^H04^^M^. ^^H i^'i ^iHs^i 



i 



Let ns now try the fonr passages of the four fractions 
First J<raction. -7^^^ — [ p [ | — | - 



of the 3'"^ Position. 



w 



1 n - 4 18 4 



Passage of the 
r.t Fraction 







of the :i'':' Position. 






-T4 . 1 S 4 



I'l^-^iiTe of the 
vi'.' Fraction. 




12 4 2 



2 4. " o 4 



Third Fraction 
of the S'r* Position 









Passajre of the 
.S"".' Fraction . 



. -^^^4 ?rf, f ff f 'f Pff I ! .' .. r ^ r - rr 1 ^^^^- ^ ^ g,'-^ 



W; 



1 3 4T ^^ 3T f^^4? •'9*^^49'^ 



3fen: 



9746 



IJ2 

Fourth Fractidii- 
of the 3'':i P()sition. 



Passaj^e of the 
4•^ Fraction , 



,!l»- r- JE- *• 



^m 






't 



■«^^^2?ftp-^» 



4 2 







-+-« ir^ 




Thus, also, the third position is know ii , with all its fractions, and it is equally in ac- 
cordance with the. first, as the fonrth has been proved to be . There now onfy remains 
the second position for consideration . I mijijht wfite the first position on the first 
string; a t()ne higher than I have before given it, and then it would Certainly be the 
second position on the first string; but as I am desirous of presenting it by the same 
notes, ( as I have already done in the cases ol tbt fourth and third positions,) I shall 
writi' on one stave the four fractions of the first position on the first string, and, on 
another, the same notes an octave lower, which will give the second position on the,. 
third string . 



l^.< Fra<'ti<)ii. 



K X A M P L E . 

2".'! Frirti,,,, 



8''.'^ FractiDn. 



4t.^ Fra.'ti.m. 



)\t Position 

Oil th.> l-.t Strina;. 

'Z";i Position 

(11, th.. 3""/' Striiii- 






1 3 4 T 2 1" 

l^* Fraction. 



1 2 4 r~2 4 J 3 4 1 S f~l 2 ? I 2 4 

2";* Fraction. 3^'^ Fraction . 4''.' Fraction. 



13 4 12 4 12 4 ' 1 2 4 I T4. 1 2 ¥~1 2 4 12 T'^ 



Here, then, is the last of the four positions on the neck, found by the same meansjbut 
as by this means we could not have this position on the first string, 1 shall now indi - 
cate the parallel of the third string with the first, in order that, by setting oat from 
thence, we may be able to verify the passages of these fractions. 



EX.4MPLE OF THE PAHAILEL. 

l^t Fraction. a".'' Fraction. S''.'' Fraction. 



4*1" Fraction , 



c^nci Position 

On the r.f StriniC. 

ii".'* Position 

On the 3''.'^ Strirnr. 



\ 13 4 12 4 1- 18 4 124'! 341 8 4 ' ! 84' 24* ' 

I l\* Fraction. 2".'! Fraction. S"",'* Fraction . 4'^ Fr.otinn . 

I ] o a i — f. A ' — -. — 7^ — r-^t— i — H — 3 — ' — ; 3 — 3 i :; 3 — ' — i a — -« " ■ a a 



1 2 4 I 2 4 1 2 4 



T 3~? j 2 T 



12 4 12 



Let (IS how, for tlu- la^t time, try the fnnr passage's ot tht- four fravtion- 

First Fraction -*- ^ '' \^ T*- i^ " ^ 

of the 2".'* Position. 



/.5.V 



^d. 



-A 3- 



1 g — ^ 

1,2 



■.Xir ^ffD-^^ffrrW^ '^frrrifer^rra^ 






1 2"^ 4 2 



Second Fraction 
of the 2".'* Position 

Passagje of the 
2'"i Fraction . 



* 



124 ' <- 2 4 




rfg^^ 




^ 



I 2 4. - 



-pT-r-tTtTf 



"■"^^ ^""U 24 8 4 2 4 J 2 4 2 



2 4 8 4 



J 2 4 2 



■+ 3 * " 2 "^ l2 •* 2 

Third Fraction /g )- ^T ^f T ^"T ^f f 

c i-L . ^,,,1 IJ..-:i.- ... ^^ ~ 1 U ■ L L ~~7 




2 iTi*^ 4i; -^ 2 



'3 4 ' 1 - g 4 



ttf- M f » 



I 3 4r 



Passajre of the -^t^f.^^ 
y^ Fraction. 




Fourth Fraction 
of the 2".' Position. 



Passajre of the 
4.t.^> Fraction. 



^ 



t^a 



%JL %t^ x^M«]^ 



H 2 4 



iE 



\ a :»- 




2 4 3 4 



2 4 



12 4 2 



^ 



fflj^^iS^J^.^ \ ^M^M 



-1=-^- 



4 .s 4 



9746 



7*2*^ *^ ^2^ -^^ 



1^-^ 



The unity of thr first fdiir positions has, I !!rink,Movv' been fully (l.-moiistrated and 
established; so that any one who, in the fourth position on the first strin;^, takes the 
G with the third finger, and, in the third position, the F natural with the same fin 
ger, will be convinced that he errs against unity . 

#^ -Cr KXAMPLK. 

4*.*' Position. {rr:sr. — - ~ f^ H" Si-.^ Position . ^ ^^. T — ~ "T — 



1\' Position, 



w 



-a-r- 



M 






35 



l^^ string-. 

1'-.'^ Position . 

4'.^ String- . 



m 



w 



W 



The proof that this fingeringis not correct, is, the necessity of abandoning it e>ery 
moment,- the next example will clearly show this. 



4'.*' Poj^ition. 



Position , 



P 



2 



^ 



i 



2 



m 



± 



i 



cmjjuisurily abaiidfiied 
I 2 1 2 ^ 2 



E^ 



C'jiipiiIsuriJv ahaTiit'Hif'ii , 

However, the al)o\e is but a slight fault, for it neither destroys the freedom nor the 
perpendicular pressure of the fingers , But this cannot be said, when the scales of 
and D are obstinately fingered by some persons as I am about to give them, and the 
others in a proportionably faulty manner; and further, when the notes D,E,F; and G, 
on the first string, are taken in the way indicated, below . 

KXAMPLK OF THESK F.4LSK MODKS OF FINGKRING. 



S C A L K OF 

O major. 



W 



Wff'- 



ol V^ 4 



S C A L K OF 

D major. 



W 



^i.J l;J H^f^ 



2 4 



i 



i ^ ^ 



1 



D, E, F3, G 



W 



^ 1 ^^ 



To such persons we have nothing to reply, except that their wills are free, and to pay 
them many compliments if they succeed, with such a mode of fingering, in playing in tune 
and in drawing a fine tone from the instrument . 

But I must now treat of the mobility of the thumb at the back of the neck;of whirh, 
in the Chapter "On the Position of the Hand" I promised to give an explanation . 

When there is a. distance of a minor third between the first and fourth fingers, (as 

iti the following example,) the thpmb, as I have already stated, should be placed opposite 

the interval lo-f-ween the first and second finirers. 

^ 9746 



K X A M H L K 



m 



m 



l.'y.5 



Milt if the t'ourtli fiii^rer is extended to the (tislmioe of tt miijiir third trmn 
the firfit, the second fiiij^er then takes the place of the third, as ve have seen in 
the |irerediiig examples of" the first and third fractions ; in which case, the thiunli 
should follow the second finger and advance behind the neak with it , and the first 

finger shoald remain firm in its own place. I shall now repeat fimr measures 

of the third fraction . In the first two measures the thumb keeps its place, as we 
have seen in the preceding example, and in the last two it ad\ances with th-- >-•■ 
cond tiniier and comes nearly opposite it . 



y X 



\ M V 1. K . ^«-' ^ 




H.r- th.' thiuuh adT:ti\fes viit- ■■ ?".'' fiii,r.r. 

I'his prof, (lure should always take place when we pass from the distance of a 
minor, to that of a major third; yet ilie case is not the same in the tlfernative of the 
lir>t finger, in the second and foortli tractions : for, there, the second tinger does not 
change its place, as it must have iieeii remarked that the distanc.e between the fir>,t 
and fourth fingers is, from the commencement , that of a major third . 



K X J M H L K (^; f =^ 

2":* Fraction. : ' 



^ -ff- 



1 



In these two fractions, the thumb should be nearly opposite the second finger 
which always remains in the same place : hence, only the first finger ascends or de- 
scends, according to circumstances ; the rest of the hand remains exactly in the same 

place and preserves the same form i shall herp repeat two measures i)f the se 

cond fraction, in which the finger ascends in the second measure, but the other fin — 
;;-rs and the thumb do not change their places . 



K X \ M P L E 

ii'.' Fraction. 




tllTi^tTL^ tl^ 



Her", "Illy M: I".' finifiT iHv.uirHs. 

I do not know that a good master should be too eager to mak>- thi> remark 

to his pupil: as it is to be feared that it may create confusion in his movements ami, 

especially in the earlier stages, obstruct certainty of hand: this, however, I ha^e onl\ 

noticed when teaching persons who stiffen it; for those who have a flexible hand 

perforin this operation naturally , and , as it were, insensibly, without seeming to be 

iAV are of it . 

974-b • 



/.56' 

CK AFTER XVIII . 

OF THE SOW * 

ARTICLE I. 

OF THE MANNER OF HOLDING THE BOW. 



'The thdmb shonlil bt- placed flat on the stick ; the second finjrer should 
bear upon the hair; the first fiii^rer should advance on the stick to a little distance 
from the second fiin^er, and should be moveable ; because, thf farther it is from the 
second finjui;er, the more support the bow has upon the string: this mobility which, 
according to circumstances, is sometimes great, and at others moderate, or almost in- 
appreciable, is particularly necessary for expressictn . The little finger should be pla- 
ced ii|)(Ui the stick, and then the third will naturally fall into its proper position, 
though it should but barely touch the hair, otherwise the bow would be too far in 
the hand; which, it is true, might cause it to be held more firmly, but won Id destroy 
all the mobility or play of the fingers, which is extremely useful . When, however, I 
say that the third finger ought not to touch the hair, I must be understood as speak- 
ing of an ordinary sized hand; for those who have long fingers, may have the third a 
little on the hair, without the bow being thereby too far in the hand . 

In this method of holding the bow, the thumb should be situated betv\een the 
second and third fingers . This must be carefully attended to, as it gives more support 
to the first finger: and We feel that the. wliole^ exertion 'oftht hiWdis iiiadei';o;ni'ithait 
side .The little finger, on the contrary, may balance this power and lighten the bow 
at pleasure . I have alv\ays perfectly felt these movements when playing on the \ iidon 
cello, but I should be nearly as much embarrassed to analyse them, as to descrioe tho^e 
of my tongue, when 1 speak . However, what I have said proves at least that the bow 
should be held with freedom, and without the slightest stiffness of the hand . One 
thing, for instance, I can assert, which is, that when 1 take a note with force on the 
fourth string, the first finger advances considerably from the second; while, if I play 
moderately loud on the first string, it is nearly close to the- second finger .1 -hall out 
enter into all the gradations of this mo\ement, which drpeiid entirely on sensation: we 
_i — J lj l! > I: \'" I ,1 ; ^ ' :;■■' m: i ■ • ■ • • ■ , ■ ' ' m i ' ' ■ ; _^ [ 

It WHS U'lt M** Duport H inttmtiiin to havp Kpokeii 4't th** ^ow,anlt hf ha?» nn!y hft-u i .ulucfd . t hrfniirh th** *"- 
licit, itnn nf his friends, and sinop the manuscript uf this -work was piaceci in th** Kn^^ravers hands , tn put tuiC'i'-r 
t li<' remarks whi(.'h ._£'"'™^ the Mibstanee of this ch.^ptpr . rN(»te of the Frciu-h Kdit"rTj 



1.57 

fffl that it shdiild advance or recede, accordiiijr tii the different dejjrees (»f power 
which we desire or are obliged to employ. 

The second finger , which touches the hair, keeps the bow steady and prevents 
it from turning; but it has also other ])roperties , of such delicate sensibility as to 
render them almost inexplicable: for example, it frequently informs ns, through the 
contact of the string with the hair, that the vibrations' begin to get unequal, and 
that the string is about to whistle or produce a harsh kind of sound, which it of- 
ten rectifies . But I fear I have already said too mach on this subject; for I do not 
wish to enter on a discussion of things which certainly I could not prove . .1 simply 
state what I believe I have felt . I have seen many persons, "who ha\e correctly made 
all these no-ovements without giving attention to them, which must have arisen from 
natural feeling^; as regards myself, I did not perceiye the facility with which I made 
them, until I was engaged in teaching those who could not do the like . 

ARTICLE II. 

OF THE POSITION OF THE BOW ON THE STRING . 



The hair must be nearly flat on the string, and yet the stick somewhat inclined 
towards the finger-b(vard, but not too much, otherM'ise when a little force is employ- 
ed the wood of the bow will touch the string . When the lower strings are played 
on, and particularly the fourtbjthe hair must be quite flat; but this is done so na- 
turally, that I have never met with a pupil to whom I have had occasion to mention it. 

ARTICLE III. 

OF THE PLACE OF THE BOW ON THE STRING. 



The place which the bow should occupy on the strings of the Violoncello is ge- 
nerally fixed at two inches from the bridjje . All those who play on this instrument , 
know, that, in order to produce a fine tone, the bow must remain as much as possible 
ill the same place on the striny;; but I think that, for the medium degree of power in 
pla_\iiig, the above-mentioned j)lace is rather too near the bridge . I am not bold erioogli 

9746 



ti) Hett»rmine the prtrise distance; for, in ordtr t(i H(t so, a systt-m.itie lut-thnd luiist ne- 
cessarily be adopted, and this for two reasons: first, because in keeping the bow as 
much as possible in the same place on the strinjr, it will always approach the bridge 
a li1;tle, even against the will of the j) Zctver, when the sonnd is augmented, and recede 
from it when the soiiud is diminished : the bow should certainly vary from one place 
as little as possible, and never move about from the bridge to the finger-board, and 
from the finger-board to the bridge, which would more than occasion a bad tone; for, 
on the one hand, it would cause the string to whistle, and, on the other, 'to screak . 
The second reason which equally and rationally prevents the determining this distance, 
is, that it must vary with different persons . This reason may, however, be more easily 
demonstrated than the other; indeed it will be readily understood, that thie nearer the 
bridge the bow is placed on the string, the greater is the resistance offered by the 
string ;t() it, and consequently a more vigorous attack is required, which renders the 
vibrations stronger : hence, it results that greater force mast be used by the left 
hand, as the string must be stopped by the finger with a force proportioned to the 
attack which it has received from the bow . However, we should not, for the mere 
sake of trying our strength, press down the finger as much as we are-able, and then 
draw the bow forcibly across the string, very near the bridge, and exclaim, I can 
produce so much sotaidy the question, here, is relative to a mean term; while this 
would be acting like a man, who, being able to lift three hundred weight, should say, 
1 can carry this 7veight, although he would be obliged to lay it down before he had 
proceeded ten steps. It is with the force of the bow compared with that of the fingers, 
as with a man who is laden during a whole day's journey on foot . The fingers naust 
doubtless press down the strings, but still so as to be able to do it with agility. There- 
fore , whoever has a very firm and vigorous touch may fii the place of the bow nearer 
the bridge and produce a fine tone; while those whose touch is weaker, will be obliged to 
fix it rather farther off, otherwise the string will screak. I think a master would be 
greatly embarrassed to determine the place of the bow for his pupil; it being, in my o- 
piniou, a matter of feeling. The grand object is to produce a fine tone: as to the more 
or less force, (talent and skill being equal,) that must depend on the physical capability, 
and therefore it' belongs to the performer himself to seek the proper place or distance from 
the bridge, until he perreiv^^ fh,- f .p, <,, ),(. perfectly round, pure, clear and equal . 

9746 



/.J.4 
ARTICLE IV. 

OF THE CONDUCT OF THE SOWTO^ETKE STFTING. 



The bow shoald. be drawn, and pushed horizontally on the string, eare beiug 
taken to keep it from one end to the other, at the same distance from the bridge . 
The facility of doing this may be ac(|nired, by moving the bow bacWards and for- 
wards in sach a manner, that the hair may be always perfectly square withithe string, 
and by employing at all times the same degree of force . In regard to this , there 
aje several things to be observed; _^rsf, the motion of the fore-arm, which, almost ex- 
clnsively/ mast saffice for drawing and pnshing the bow througboirt its length; the 
Hpper part of the arm mnst remain in the same position, except wh^i the wrist ap- 
proaches the bridge, and then the arm makes a slight movement to finish pushing the 
bow: the same- thing also takes place in retnrniug, as the fore-arm is then spread on t 
ta its fnll extent to draw back the bow to its point . Sec-ondly , care shonld be taien 
to opes the elbow well, so that the arm may be nearly extended when the bow ar— 
riyes at its point, and not to carry back the upper part of the arm, as that renders 
the movements of the bow heavy, difficult and constrained; this is what is called playing 
fro.itt the shoulder, a habit ^siiichjif uiifortiriiHtely contracted, allows the wrist bat little' 
motion and leaves only the shoulder to act: for the movement of the elbow is nnllified, 
and the merest trifles become difficult and occasion much fatigue . The wrist per- 
forms an important part in the conduct of the bow, and has two wholly distinct 
movements ; the first of which we shall now consider . When we -svish to draw and 
push the bow quite horizontally on the string, the wrist, as I have, before -intimkfe4» 
should' act in the manner of a hinge, otherwise the point of the bow would incline 
downwards when drawn, and upwards when pushed . This movement is called the op- 
position of the wrist, and great care must be taken that it be neither too much nor 
too little . By strictly attending to the hair of the bow being' always kept *qmt<^ square 
■with the string, this movement of the -wrist will spontaneously take place .There are 
some persons, who make it to excess, but every useless movement is ridiculous; others 
think to display grace by it , but in my ojiiuioii nothing is so graceful as ease, 'which 
every unnecessary movement aestroys . When the bow is pushed from the point to 
the nut, the wrist must be slightly raised, in order to arrive at the second finger which 
keeps the bow firmly on the string, so that as mrroh of the bow as possibles may 
be employed , 9746 



160 

One of the most common faults in the conduct of the Violoncello bow, which 

I cannot here forbear to notice, is that of constantly holding the ]Joint of the how too 
high . This fault is subject to great iflconvenierjce; ftir, in this position of the bow on 
the string, in drawing the bow, the hair ascends from the biridgw to- thei fingerboard 
and, fu pushing it (descends frow the; fing<Rrt|(,>4cdi(to* the bridge: thts formwEaofteii cin^ 
sfis th<i striug to ■ktiiitle lilnd th«- la.ttei' BOiifcaSfit tewldiifc.;. Biit ,-s»pposiii,g we.shficild 
be able to prevent i both' tbc Ti*^hi^tJing- and sorewlcing ;:9till , with such ,a fanlty eo'jif 
duct of tfboiibow, we should;. liitfvi^j^K 10 b ta in a; pirirei .B()u«d ; because the vib'ratingBtdiMg 
being cohtiiMially shortened and lengthened by this means, there would necessarily 
result an nne([iiality in the vibrations, and c ui-^etjueutly a bad tone . 

The second movement ot the wrist is used in changing the string; for ex- 
ample, if the bow be placed on the secoml string, by raising the wrist a little the 
bow will at iiuce be fnnmi on thf first string; or, on the contrary, bv slightly 
lowering tht^- wri^!,it will be on the third string . The arm has nothing or nearly 
nothing to do with this m<'Vemeiit, which must take place every time the string is 
changed . This is much more evident in the bowing of those passages which are 
called in French, iatteriefi" of w^hich I shall speak farther on . , 

ARTICLE V. 

OF THE ATTACK OF THE STRING BY THE BOW, 



What is called attacking the string, is, the taking it in such a manner as at once 
to put it into vibration; for, if Wf place the bow too lightly on the string, (suppose, 
with the point,) and then push it forwards, the string will whistle; and even if press- 
ed more heavily while being pushed, it will still continue to whistle or give its oc- 
tave, but will not vibrate clearly . The string must therefore be so attacked that it 
may vibrate freely at the first uiotimi of the bow, and then by keeping the bow pro- 
perly placed on the string, a fine tone will be obtained throughout its length. The 
attack of the bow varies greatly according to the different kinds of expression which 
we wish to ])roduce . There are some cases where a very strong attack produces a 
fine «'ffect,and others (and these are the more general,) w^here it should be impercep- 
tible or inappreciable," but this depends on taste and feeling. 



47KS 



The manner of attackin^r the strinjr appears to me to be this: first, place the 
bow^ on the string, then contract the wrist a little, and afterwards pnsh the bow; this, 
little movement of support from the wrist caases the bow to pnt the string in mo- 
tion and at once makes it .ribrate . This is termed hiting the string, and we say of 
a performer that his bow bites * 

Thus far I ha^e spoken only of the poiiit of the bow, for the case differs when 
the bo\\^ is drawn instead of pasbedr.as the stroke of the bow then commences im- 
mediately under the hah d, it happens, from the weight of the arm, that the attack 
is nearly always too strong;, and therefore it is here necessary to diminish the pres- 
sure as much as possible, in order to equalise the attack of the nut end of the bow 
to that of the point . Id general, the bow can neither be drawn nor pushed a single 
time without the string being thus attacked . It is impossible for me to enter into 
all the gradations of this imperceptible touch, for such it must be; I shall therefore 
only observe, that the attack must be in proportion to the strength of sound requi — 
red, and in proportion to the resistaiicw and the length of the strings which have to 
be put into vibration . In general, those who attack the strings with too much force 
play harshly, and those who do not attack them wth sufficient vigour are liable to 
make them whistle . 

I have already observed that, the attack should be imperceptible, and the follow- 
ing is my reason f<ir the assertion . It seems to me that the string should be suf- 
ficiently attacked to be put into vibration, bnt not so much, nor in such a manner, 
as to be perceived by a' hearer, which would be harsh and disagreeable . There . 
are occasions, however, as I have already observed, when the expression requires this 
very strong attack; then, indeed, it produces its effect and does not shock the ear. 



Ths French phrasu it; Cat hommv a du mo. iant dans I archut'. 

ED: 

9746 



162 

ARTICLE VI. 

OF EQUALITY AND SHADES OR GRADATIONS 
OF SOUND, AND OF EXPRESSION. 



Variety in the manner <if playing, gradations "f sound, and consequently expres- 
sion , depend on the bov\', and are matters of taste and feeling. I shall not attemptto 
give examples of such taste and feeling, as that would be extremely ridiculous; but I 
will say that in order to be able to produce all those shades of sound which feeling- ~ 
inspires and taste regulates, we must begin by acquiring a perfect command of the bow. 
One of the means is, to seek to equalise the sound which the four strings produce . 
This may be attained by the practice of drawing and pushing the bow perfectly even, 
from one end to the other, and with a moderate degree of force, as I have already 
observed in the Article on the conduct of the bow . The scales must therefore be 
played very- slowly, taking care to make every sound as equal as possible, both in 
drawing a,nd in pushing the bow. It is also a point of the greatest importance per- 
fectly to equalise the drawing and pushing, without which neither smoothness not neat- 
ness will be attained, and (if the phrase may be permitted) I may add, only a lame 
method of playing will result . Great attention must likewise b« paid that the suc- 
cessive sounds be produced perfectly equal . There is no instrument, however good 
it may be, which has the sounds on all its four strings perfectly equal in power and 
quality. It rests with the ])layer himself to equalise them. 

It may perhaps be said that, in speaking of shades of soHnd,.and of expression, 
I recomnu-nd uionotouy . To this 1 reply that every thing has its centre, and the 
centre of fine [)laying,if I may so express myself , is the greatest equality in ( he dif- 
ferent sounds . This equality,, from the gravest-to the most acute sound, is not to be 
neglected, since in the opinion of all professors, it is a thing at once the most difficult 
and the most rare; hence it is necessary to enforce it . Besides, we cannot persuade any 
one thrtt the bow may produce every possible shade of sound, if he is not able with it to 
equalise the sounds at will . If therefore you have not a perfect ctimmand of your bow, 
and cannot equalise it in drawing and pushing, there will be an intermixture of weak 
and strong sounds, whi^h it would evidently be an error to take for shades and expres- 
sion, as such inequalities would always occur in similar circumstances. 

974.6 



'When the powder of eqiialisiiijr the sounds shall have been acqiiirt-d, the aiijr- 
menting and diminishing them at will may be practised; and this may be ddiie by 
gliding the bow from the nut to the point, and from the point to the nut, taking care 
to begin very softly and then gradnally to swell the sound, ^athoiit the least jerkinj;;, 
as far as the middle of the bow, where the greatest degree of power mast be attained; 
after which the sound mast be diminished as gradnally as it has been augmented, an - 
til it again becomes very soft , This must be practised as slowly as possible, and it 
presents another instance for equalising the drawing and pushing, without which we can 
never acquire a perfect command of the bow. I must here repeat M'hat I have alrea<ty 
said in Article III, namely, that "in keeping the bow as much as possible in the sanle 
place on the string, it will always approach the bridge a little, ^e7i against tlie will of 
the 'player, when the sound is augmented, and recede from it when the sotfiid is dimi - 
nishedr Indeed, the string offering greater resistance when taken near the bridge, fur- 
nishes the means of obtaining a greater body of ssound; but it is necessary to guard 
against approaching it too nearly and, in particular, too suddenly, as it will then scrfeach. 

When the two means have been acquired, of equalising the sounds, and of augment- 
ing and diminishing them at will, both in drawing and in pushing, the bow will then 
be able to pi-oduce alt the gradations of sound . I am fully aware that the various 
kinds of bowing are of great importance in expression, and that it will be acquired 
more easily by this means, as. it offers considerably more attraction by its variety, 
than that of which 1 have been speaking, which is very dry to study; but, still, it is 
not the work of a day, since even the most skilful professors»-when they have not play- 
ed for some time, or when they find the equilibrium or the certainty of the bow is dis-,, 
turbed, exercise themselves for hours in this manner, before attempting a passage , or 
looking at a Sonata or Concerto . Every one has not this patience, which is unfortu — 
nate, for without it I think we shall never even approach towards perfection . It may 
not be useless to add that this study affords the means of perfecting the intonation. 
Beauty of tone and perfection of tune are very nearly allied to each other; besides, the 
slowness with which this study is conducted, gives time to judge of the intonation, and 
to adjust the hand if it should have deviated from its true position . But let it not be 
thought, that I mean to say this study should be absolutely the employment of begin- 
ners, for it would perhaps altogether disgust them: they should certainly devote ^lit- 
tle time to it, and in my opinion, in proportion as they become more proficient, should 
give it still more of their attention . 

9746 



ARTICLE Vil 



CONSIDERATIONS RELATIVE TO EQUALITY OF SOU N D , AND TO THE QUALITY 
OR DISTINCTIVE CHARACTER OF THE 
TONE PRODUCED FROM THE INSTRUMENT. 



In the preceding article I have spoken of eqnality of soand; btit, in order to a- 
Toid confusion, I there omitted several things, which shall now be stated. It is well 
known that gravity of sound arises from the length of the string, and a,lso that the 
Vi(doncello has four strings of equal length, bat of nnequal gravit^y ,. This inequality 
has been attained by adopting strings of unequal thickness: thus, the sefcoiid string 
is thicker than the first; the third is covered with plated wire which imparts gravi- 
ty to it; and the fourth, which is thicker, is also covered with plated wire, but ofalar- 
ger size, and which therefore imparts a greater degree of gravity. _ I .h«w aiirafl dy 
remarked, in Article V, On the attack of the string by the bow',' that this attack must 
be"in proportion to the resistance and the length of the strings which havetobepnt 
into vibration". The same principle must be kept in viev*^, in regard to the mean force of 
the bow, as that which I have recommended for equalising the sounds; for if the same 
mean force were employed for making the double octave of the first string vibratf, as 
that which must necessarily be used for putting the fourth string into vibration, in the 
first positidii, the soun'd of the first string would be deadened: it is therefore necessa- 
ry that the attack of the bow and its pressure be in pro.portion to the resistanot^ and 
the length of the strings . T hus, to obtain a ])erfect equality of sound, this,force must 
insensilily d'^creasi' from grave to acute, and increase from acute to grave . 

Th'-re are some persons who may be said to produce three different qualities of 
tone from their iustrumesit ; the bass being feeble, the middle part good, and the up - 
per part rather harsh: and this must certainly arise from such persons Hot performing 
the gradations according to their true proportions . But as the ear alone can be onr 
guide and enable us to judge in this matter, it is highly requisite to listen attentive- 
ly to the sounds produced. One thing to be particularly recommended, is, not to abuse 
the force which M-e may employ on the first string: on the seeondiin^iifihitrtirw^e mirst 
lint press too heavily, or we shall be liable to to.uch two strings at once; but on the 
lirst striniT, by merely raising the wrist a little, we may press as heavily as w^e please, 
«(iil\'4liis renders the sound coatse . In general, the force of the bow should be. spa^ 

974(5 



iMijrly used on the first striiijr ; lor 'a h,i h rtason we should accustom ourselTes to 
ascend on the second string as often as possible, if we wish to obtain great equality 
of sound . It may then be asked, ^v'hy I have nsed the first string, in giving the scales 
on one string; to which I reply, that I did so in order to be better understood; but, 
as these scates may be ascended on all the strings in the same way, they should be so 
practised, and it will assnredly be often found that an advantage will be gained, in re- 
gard to equality of sound and quality of tone, by ascending on the second, or even on 

the third string This leads me to speak of the distinctive character or quality of 

tone which a performer draws from his instrument; and I think every one draws that 
quality in particular which best pleases his ear and best accords ^ith his physical 
powers . . 

In Article III, I have already said, that "-whoever has a very firm and vigorous 
touch may fix the place of the bow nearer the bridge and- produce a fine tone, while those 
whose touch is weaker will be obliged to fix it rather farther off ,' By this I do not 
mean U) say that they will not be able to produce as fine a tone, but merely tha^t 
it "will not be so powej-ful . Here, then, is another quality of tone, since it differs 
from the first in power; and this is so true, that if you give twenty different people 
either a Violin or a Violincello to try, those who have an exercised ear for judging of 
these instruments will distinguish as many different qualities of tone . I do not say 
that the contrast will be as of black to white, but assuredly the shades of sound 
will be distinguishable . Every player, then, having his peculiar quality of tone should 
preserve it throughout the instrument; shading the sound, however, from the loudest to 
the softest, without altering the (iutility ; and this is very essential to be observed, as 
there is nothing more disagreeable than such changes of quality in an instrument . 

Tho>e who know that the most celebrated singers have not attained their high de 

gree of skill but by constantly labouring to equalise the tones of their vdte, although 

it may at first seem that it is only the modulation, the inflexions, the variety and a- 

gility which have constituted the charm of their singing, ;_ will pardon this long 

digression, the object of -which is, to recommend performers on bow instruments to 
labour to acquire that equaility which embellishes the sounds of an instrument, as 
much as it does those of the human voice . 



9746 



166 

ARTICLE VIII. 

OF THE DIFFERENT METHODS OF BOWING. 

By the expression "Methods of bowinjr',' is nnderstood the different ways of con- 
necting the notes by means of the bow : for instance, quavers or semiquavers played 
4 by 4 with the same up or down strofce, but with four distinct movements <if the 
bow, are said to be detached; as they are, also, when taken 3 by '3 and performed in 
the same manner . But when 2 by 2, 3 by 3, or 4* by 4 are connected by a single move- 
ment of the bow, either with an up or a down stroke, they are said to be slurred. At 
another time, in the case of four notes, the first two may be slurred, and the last two 
detached ; or the first may be detached, and the last three slurred; or the first three 
slurred, and the last detached; or, finally, the first detached, the two following; slnrred, 
and the last detached . All these varieties of bowing are found indicated in the music 
which is played, and it is there that they must be studied. If I were acquainted ^ith 
any new methods of bowing I should take "pleasure in giving them, but I believe that 
none have been discovered since the tiure' of Tartini, who calculated, all of them.They 
may be varied by the accent of the bow, but hitherto it has been considered useless, or 
perhaps too complicated, to mark such accentuation in the music; and I venture to say, that 
these accents of the bow in passages are merely a matter of fashion, and subject to its 
changes . For example, when two notes are connected together, they will at one time be 
played perfectly equal, and, at another, with a slight pressure on the first, then again 
with a similar pressure on the second, and so on . All tliis depends on the fancy of the 
player . In the exercises, as well as in the passages, will be found a sufficient number of 
bowings for the practice of the bow, if the different methods which are therein indicated 
are scrupulously observed . To gi\e a clear idea of them, however, I shall here present 
some in due order. I shall em])loy the same passage for the purpose of exhibiting these 
bowings; and that too, shall be a common one, in order that it may be the better understood. 
Let us begin with the detached bowing, with a down-bow. 



v: i. 

I n 4i cnttch^t time . 




9746 



N9 2. The first four with a down bow, and the four following!; with an up bow; 



167 



and so on , 



Ex; 

Slurred 4'by4. 




N9 3. The first two with a down bow, and the two following with an irp bow 



Ex: 

Slnrred 2 by 2 . 



& gfl* ^ 






N9 4<. The first vith a down bow, and the other three with an up bow 



Ex: 



"N9 5. The first three with a down bow, and- the fourth with an np bow. 



Ex: 



N9 6. Slur the first two with a down bow, iind detach the tMO following . In. 
this case the first two jiotes in the accented part of the measure are played with 
a down bow, and the first twd in the unaccented part, with an up bow-. 



Ex 



N? 7. The first note -with a down bow, the two followinjr slurred with an np bow, 
and the< last with a down bow; this finishes the first gronp , The first .note of the, 
second ^roirp is then taken with an up bow, the two following with a down bow, and 
the last with an up bow. [_T he third group like the first, and the fourth like the secnndrj. 



Ex: 



"N" 8. The first note with a down, bow, in order to bring in the cross accent (contre- 
temps], and slur the others, two by two, always with the cross accent . This bowingis 
much used ia the present day. 



Ex: 






974« 



168 



N"? 9. Slur 8 by 8, bejrmning; with a down bow 



Ex.: 




N9 10, Slur 16. hj 16, beginning with a down bow. 



Ex: 




It mtist have been observed that the commencing notes of the phrase have ai- 
\vays been taken with a down bow. But, in order to obtain facility afid command of 
the bow, all the preceding examples should be practised by beginning with an np bow^ 
and then scrnpiulonsly following the bowings as they are marked, [which will entire- 
ly reverse the first order of bowing"] . 

Here follow different examples of bowing groups of three, or triplets, in^ 



time 



N9 1. All detached: the first with a down bow, 



Ex! 



Ex: 



Ex: 



Ex: 



Ex; 



^ 



jifttjit^tisitifttjififtfn 



N9 2 . Slar 3 by 3, beginning each measure with a down bow, 



^ 



tiftrnrittf[' \ afz:f \ af::j \ 



N9 5. Shir 6 by 6, the first six with a down 'bow. 



^ 



afLfsififtrs i ^tfs i fiSz^ji 



N9 4. Slur two with a down bow, and detach one with an up bow. 



^E 




tfjimUJirlfUf i r^^m^ 



N9 5. One with a down bow, and two with an rip bow, 



^ 




0- ^ , ^ 




i 



f M. 1^^. 





9746 



N"? 6. The first note with a down bow, afid the utht-rs shirred 3 by 5, as the^ a. •; 
marked .In this bowinir, the last note of the ihree which arr slurred tojjether must I v 
a little more accented than the others, because it forms the first note of the secniui 
part of the measure, and the ear requires it to be distinctly marked. 



E 



x; 



MTtLf Ziji'ir D-/ 1 rir L- ^s^^^ 




N? 7. The first with a down bow, then three slurred, and afterwar s three detached. 
E: 



Here, too, it must have been seen that all the commencing notes have been taken 
with a down bow; but we shonI.d also be able to perform all these exercises with the 
reverse order of bowing, by beginning them with in irp bow. 

The following method of bowijig 5 by 5 is much used . 

NV 8 . The first three slurred, with a down bow, and the three following takeu 
siaccaii), with an up bow . 



E 



X : 



f- > 



& ^^\ 



*j^ 



^ I cu' tcj^ I gr ^ 



Let as now proceed to groups of six, in^time . 
N*? Z . All detached ; the first with a down bow 



Exi 



^ 



^ 



J^ 



^fr^ , r>:rfr 



i 



g 



Ex: 



NV i?... Slur 6 by 6; the first group with a dow bow. 



^ 



A 



^ 



m 



N9 3. Slur 2 by 2 ; the first two with a down bow 



E 



^ 



^>^ ^ 






"N'.' 4< . The first two with a down bow, the two following detached, and the last 
two with an up bow, and so on . 



E 



^ 



g ^f^if^.'^^^i^rffr, ^.r 



A-^ 



i 



9746 



170 -^^^ 5. Slur thi* first two with a ddwii bow, and detach the four folKm-ing. Ht-re, 
the two slurred notes in the first measure will he taken with a down bow, and the 
two in the second measure with an op bow, and so on . 



Ex; 



^ 



i # 



i 



i 



f-i^ 



^'.* 6. Detach the first four, beginning with a down bow, and slur the last'two. 
Here, the first note in the first measure will be taken with a down bow,and the first 
in the second measure with an up bow. 



Ex 



^ 



— ^ ^ ■ ^^ 



Yffrrirfr 



N? 7. Detach the first, and slur the following, 2 by 2, as they are marked 
This method of bowing answers Tery well , when we desire to give a strong 
expression, to a passage . 



Exr^ 



i 



iS 



N'.' 8. Slur three with a down bow, and detach the three others 



Ex' 



^ 



^ 



£ 



^ 



We mast learn to execute all these examples, as in the case of the others, by 
beginning them with an up bow. 

N.B. There are two methods of playing detached notes; the first, by taking 
them firmly, which is used when we desire to produce a full tone; and the other, by 
a slight tripping of the bow, which is adapted in light passages . The latter method 
is performed with three quarters of the bow, towjirds the point . 

E^nough, I think, has now been said, to give an idea of the different 'modes 
of howing . It only remains to mention the pique, the arpeggio, and the martele 
on staccato feK)\^ings 

PIQUE. The fique bowing is performed in two ways: tht; first, is very simple, 
and consists in taking the first note, which is dotted, with a firm down -bow, and 
the second note with a smart np-bow, and so on . 



E X A M H L K 




frxj'Q.'Q 'iQ:^ "^ 



9746 



The SfCtiM.l W.1V i- rather uiore diffioiilt , but is has thr- advantage that it can bt- jirr 
fdrined with greater vivacity and even -with greater force . The first or dotted imte is 
taken with nearly the whole length nf the down hn-..-, but nrre^ted near the puiiit.-w-hen 
the string is again attacked (still with the down bow in on^i r to pmdiiee the qtricknote; 
then, the next dotted note is taken with au up bow, arrested iK\ir the nut, when the string 
is attacked a second time ( still with the np how) to draw out the quick note; and so on. 

This bowing is very difficult to be nnderstood by a mere explanation; hut with the 
bow in the hand, and performed several tiines before the pnpil,he will soon acquire a 
perception of it . In fact it is the takintr two notes ■with the same stroke of , the bow, 
hut detaching them expressly according to their respective duration . Every professoris 
acquainted with this method of using the bow • 

• 0^0 0^1l 



EXAMPL E 




i^ftc 




'-^'^ciD'iSQ-'^i^'^i . -Av^^ 



ARPEGGIOS . An explanation <^t these has been already given in Chapter XI . 

.MABTKL'B on STACCATO. This method of bowing is so well known , that 
I consider it unnecessary to explain how it is executed . It is altogether a mat- 
ter of tact and address , and may be acquired by much practice . Some persons ac- 
quire it very readily, vvhile others never succeed in doing it perfectly : I reckon myself 
among this number .* 



EXAMPLK 




^:j^^§ ^^ 



ri.M Fri-iii'h K'lit' r h'-r.- n-nnrks, in a iKtci All M"" Dupiirt's fr4i;n.l> kM..v his (■xci=>siTp mmlrt-tT . 

974fi 



172 



ARTICLE IX 



OF THE BOWING OF THOSE P ASS AG ES A LLE D, I N FRENCH, BATTERIES. 

Tl^is term is used to designate those passajres in which the bow passes alter- 
nately from one, string to another: ahd herel. shall take occasion to explain a matter 
which freqtiently causes embarrassment . Many persons for instance, lielieve that, 
in playing on the Violincello, an ap bow is used in all those places where a down 
bow would be employed on the Violin . This is certainly an error; for, on both in 
strnments, the accented part of the measure is generally taken with a down bow ; 
and, when a piece begins on an unaccented part, an up bow is used, in order that the 
next measure may commence with a down - bow, which produces a better phrasing . 
All metodi^s and even diatonic passages are performed on the same principle, and it 
is only in what are called 'batteries that the contrary takes place. In these, the low 
notes are generally taken with an up bow on the Violoncello , bnt with a down bow on 
the Violin . Here follow some examples of batteries for the Violoncello. 



r- EXAMPLE. 

Each note with a separate bowing; Ihe first \\'ith an irp-bow. 



^s 



jw ppi^m^j^^m^ 



2"J^ EXAMPLE. 

In skipping over a string; the first note wdth an np bow. 



,ff t J fj r J f^ 




5!1* EXAMPLE. 
In this, on the contrary, the first note, being high, must "be taken with a 
down bow, iu order that the second, which is low, may be taken with an up bow . 



im=^^^ 




9746 



-4-^11 EXAMPLE . In Triplets. 
The first note with an up how, hikI the two foUowinj^ with a down bow. 






77.y 



OL^ EXAMPLE . In Triplets. 
The first note with a down bow, and the two following with au up bow. 





■■r^^^ 



In re]a;ard to the manner of usin^ the bow in the performance of hatteries wherti 
a string is skipped over, I mnst beg that the remark prefixed to the /iO'^'Exer- 
cise be attentively observed . 

The foregoing will suffice to i>;i\e an idea of the various methods of bowitig in 
these passages, and to enable the plaver to jedge of those which are derived from 
them, in any music he may meet with . I ought perhaps to state, that the reason why, 
in this case, an up bow is used on the Violoncello for that which would be taken with a 
down bow on the Violin, arises, as it appears to me, from the fact of the strings of 
the two instruments presenting themselves in an in\erse order to the hand which holds 
the bow. On the Violin, for example, the first string comes first, while on the Vio- 
loncello, on the contrary, the fourth string first presents itself to the b.owj and hence it 
results, that the bow, while appearitig to act in an opposite manner on the two instru- 
ments, nevertheless takes the string which is farthest from it with a down-stroke,. md 
that which is nearest to it with an upstroke . If it b,e desired to pro%e this, let "attention 
be given to the movement of the wrist, and it will be seen that it performs precisely the 
same action, to renderthe same thinjr on the two instruments, although seemingly in an 
in%erse order . These butttries might certainly be played by taking the lowest note with 
a .down how, but they will always produce a better effect when it is taken with an ap 
bow, because the movement then made by the wrist is the most natural. When 1 prac- 
tised much, I exercised myself for a lony; time in ])laying them in the inverse order , 
that I miirbi accustom my wrist to every mo\emeiit possible ; but, notwithstamling this 
labour, I ha\e been .obliged to return to the use of the up -bow for the lowest note , 
whin [ ha\r wishi'd to produce the best effect . 



974.6 



174 

A K T i (^ L E X . 

OF THE FORM AND LENGTH OF THE BOW 



I ha\e bt-eii so often qnestioned on the subject of this article, that I am in — 
cliiu-il to think it may be more interesting than I have hitherto snpposed: hence it is 
that I am induced to gise my opinion, but at the same time I must beg that it may 
he regarded merely as an opinion, and not by any means as a judgement . 

1 think, then, that either a heavy or a light boM- is equally good, as this altoge- 
(lirr depends on the habit which has been contracted by the player. He who uses a 
light bow imperceptibly advances his first finger on the stick, which makes up for 
any deficiency in its weight . In my opinion, also, it is a matter of indifference whe — 
thi-r a bow has a high or a low point, or nut; for, of all these forms,, that ^wiiiclh 
we have used for H long period will be found the best; bec^mse the h anil being afv- 
ciistomed to make the requisite movements in order to conduct the bow, vvill be discon- 
certed in meeting -with another which demands wholly different movements. It is almost 
the same, in respect to bows with the hair more or less tight; for I have seen some 
play extremely well with the hair screwed rather tight, and in a superior manner with 
the hair nearly loose . I do not think, however, that is a matter of indifference in re- 
gtrd to a bow being too long or too short . It appears to me that a bow which is too 
short must produce a less mellow tone and furnish fewer resources to the player; ne- 
\ertheless, with practice and skill, I leel persuaded that much may be done with it . 
As to those of a wholly disproportionate length, I cannot help thinking them ridiculous, 
and this for two reasons : first, because a bow which is too long loses the necessary 
power for attacking the thicker strings , particularly the fourth-; and secondly, because 
it appears to me that the bow should not be longer than the arm can draw it with 
ease, as it is almost exclusively the fore -arm which acts in moving the bow. up and 
down . If too long, the upper part of the arm must necessarily move back in order to 
arrive at the jioint of the bow, which is very useful in a great many passages, especial- 
ly in those where lightness is required; but this movement cannot be made without the 
action of the shoulder , and I have already detailed the inconvenience of it. 

These reflections bring to mind that, in my youth, I ha\e seen peraonslipiaying 
Nvith such long bows that, in order to be able to employ the whole length, they have 
been obliged to threu their Violnnrello forw-ard . I well remember a certain amateur, 



175 

and that not withont pleasure, who believed that by means of his loiijr bow 

he produced a greater body of sound than any one else . He held his Violon- 
cello on his left foot, so that he had his right leg qnite free . When he wanted 
to play with the point of his bow, particularly on the fonrth string, his arm and 
right shoulder were carried so far back that they drew with them his loins, and 
these again his right leg, until his foot described a quarter of a circle on the floor. 

It most not be imagined that we can and ought to use as long a bow on 
the Violoncello as on the Violin; this would be an erroneous idea. The position 
of the Violin allows of a much greater extension of the right arm; of which 
truth any one may easily convince himself . 

The ordinary length of the Violoncello bow is about %! inches, including the 
head and the screw of the bow; and that of the hair about 24 inches . By this 
I do not mean to say that every t>ne ought to use a bow of this exact length, nor 
that persiijis who have long arms are not justified in having bows of a due pro- 
portion til them . 

The most essential thing in the form of the bow is, that the stick be very 
straight and not liable to warp, and that it be so regularly dimil)ished,that it wifi 
obey ec^ually from one end to the other . There is no one who has succeeded bet- 
ter in the manufacture of bows, than MC Tourtk Junr ; and I am the more pleased 
b> render this tribute to his merit, because it is so generally acknowledged; 

EXD OF PART I . 

Si7+6 



176 



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257 



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19'/' EXERCISE. 



'451 



'his piece most be played thntuj/hout in the half shift, vithorit leavinj^j it for a momeiit. 

Allegro. 



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25:i 



This piece must be played with force and agility >*ith the poiut of the bow, for.if plajed 
with the heel (or nut eiidj of the bow, the performance will be dull, coarse, aud even coiifii'^td. 
The bow should never leave the strings in those passages where it has to skip over one of 
them, otherwise a disagreeable effect will be experienced. 

Allegro. 

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